Advertisement

Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome

Published:September 07, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2022.06.006

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Sleep Medicine Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • Cano-Pumarega I.
        New concepts in the management of restless legs syndrome.
        BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2017; 356: j104
        • Winkelman J.W.
        • et al.
        Practice guideline summary: treatment of restless legs syndrome in adults.
        Neurology. 2016; 87: 2585-2593
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • Benitez A.
        • Kohnen R.
        • et al.
        Augmentation of restless leg syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease) during long-term dopaminergic treatment.
        Postgrad Med. 2015; 127: 716-725
        • Inoue Y.
        • et al.
        Long-term open-label study of pramipexole in patients with primary restless legs syndrome.
        J Neurol Sci. 2010; 294: 62-66
        • Partinen M.
        • et al.
        Open-label study of the long-term efficacy and safety of pramipexole in patients with Restless Legs Syndrome (extension of the PRELUDE study).
        Sleep Med. 2008; 9: 537-541
        • Bassetti C.L.
        • et al.
        Pramipexole versus dual release levodopa in restless legs syndrome: a double blind, randomised, cross-over trial.
        Swiss Med Wkly. 2011; 141: w13274
        • Kvernmo T.
        • Härtter S.
        • Burger E.
        A review of the receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopamine agonists.
        Clin Ther. 2006; 28: 1065-1078
        • Boroojerdi B.
        • Wolff H.-M.
        • Braun M.
        • et al.
        Rotigotine transdermal patch for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and restless legs syndrome.
        Drugs Today (Barc). 2010; 46: 483-505
        • Elshoff J.-P.
        • Braun M.
        • Andreas J.-O.
        • et al.
        Steady-state plasma concentration profile of transdermal rotigotine: an integrated analysis of three, open-label, randomized, Phase I Multiple dose studies∗ ∗results of study SP630 were partially presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Academ.
        Clin Ther. 2012; 34: 966-978
        • Benitez A.
        • Edens H.
        • Fishman J.
        • et al.
        Rotigotine transdermal system: developing continuous dopaminergic delivery to treat Parkinson’s disease and restless legs syndrome.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014; 1329: 45-66
        • Högl B.
        • Oertel W.H.
        • Schollmayer E.
        • et al.
        Transdermal rotigotine for the perioperative management of restless legs syndrome.
        BMC Neurol. 2012; 12: 106
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • et al.
        Effects of rotigotine on daytime symptoms in patients with primary restless legs syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.
        Curr Med Res Opin. 2016; 32: 77-85
        • Oertel W.H.
        • et al.
        One year open-label safety and efficacy trial with rotigotine transdermal patch in moderate to severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome.
        Sleep Med. 2008; 9: 865-873
        • Oertel W.
        • et al.
        Long-term safety and efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch for moderate-to-severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome: a 5-year open-label extension study.
        Lancet Neurol. 2011; 10: 710-720
        • Högl B.
        • et al.
        Treatment of moderate to severe restless legs syndrome: 2-year safety and efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch.
        BMC Neurol. 2010; 10: 86
        • Evidente V.G.
        Piribedil for restless legs syndrome: a pilot study.
        Movement Disord. 2001; 16: 579-581
        • Aurora R.N.
        • et al.
        The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults--an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline.
        Sleep. 2012; 35: 1039-1062
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • et al.
        European guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome: report of a joint task force by the European Federation of Neurological Societies, the European Neurological Society and the European Sleep Research Society.
        Eur J Neurol. 2012; 19: 1385-1396
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • et al.
        Reduced response to gabapentin enacarbil in restless legs syndrome following long-term dopaminergic treatment.
        Sleep Med. 2019; 55: 74-80
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • et al.
        The long-term treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis–Ekbom disease: evidence-based guidelines and clinical consensus best practice guidance: a report from the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group.
        Sleep Med. 2013; 14: 675-684
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • Cano I.
        • Granizo J.J.
        Treatment of restless legs syndrome with the selective AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel.
        Sleep Med. 2017; 34: 105-108
        • Vetrugno R.
        • et al.
        Augmentation of restless legs syndrome with long-term tramadol treatment.
        Movement Disord. 2007; 22: 424-427
        • Earley C.J.
        • Allen R.P.
        Restless legs syndrome augmentation associated with tramadol.
        Sleep Med. 2006; 7: 592-593
        • Winkelman J.W.
        • Purks J.
        • Wipper B.
        Baseline and 1-year longitudinal data from the National restless legs syndrome opioid Registry.
        Sleep. 2021; 44
        • Allen R.P.
        • et al.
        Evidence-based and consensus clinical practice guidelines for the iron treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease in adults and children: an IRLSSG task force report.
        Sleep Med. 2018; 41: 27-44
        • Cho Y.W.
        • Allen R.P.
        • Earley C.J.
        Efficacy of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) 500 mg dose for the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome.
        Sleep Med. 2018; 42: 7-12
        • Vishwakarma K.
        • Kalra J.
        • Gupta R.
        • et al.
        A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy and tolerability of fixed doses of ropinirole, bupropion, and iron in treatment of restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease).
        Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2016; 19: 472-477
        • Ulfberg J.
        • Stehlik R.
        • Mitchell U.
        Treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease with selenium.
        Iranian J Neurol. 2016; 15: 235-236
        • Jimenez-Trevino L.
        Oxcarbazepine treatment of restless legs syndrome: three case reports.
        Clin neuropharmacology. 2009; 32: 169-170
        • della Marca G.
        • et al.
        Levetiracetam can be effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome with periodic limb movements in sleep: report of two cases.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2006; 77 (566 LP – 567)
        • Roshi
        • Tandon V.R.
        • Mahajan A.
        • et al.
        Comparative efficacy and safety of clonazepam versus nortriptyline in restless leg syndrome among forty Plus women: a prospective, open-label randomized study.
        J mid-life Health. 2019; 10: 197-203
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • Garcia-Malo C.
        • Granizo J.J.
        • et al.
        A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with dipyridamole for restless legs syndrome.
        Movement Disord. 2021; 36: 2387-2392
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • et al.
        Treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease with the non-selective ENT1/ENT2 inhibitor dipyridamole: testing the adenosine hypothesis.
        Sleep Med. 2018; 45: 94-97
        • García-Borreguero D.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic standards for dopaminergic augmentation of restless legs syndrome: report from a World association of sleep medicine – international restless legs syndrome study group consensus Conference at the Max Planck Institute.
        Sleep Med. 2007; 8: 520-530
        • Garcia-Borreguero D.
        • et al.
        Guidelines for the first-line treatment of restless legs syndrome/Willis–Ekbom disease, prevention and treatment of dopaminergic augmentation: a combined task force of the IRLSSG, EURLSSG, and the RLS-foundation.
        Sleep Med. 2016; 21: 1-11
        • Allen R.P.
        • et al.
        Restless legs syndrome (RLS) augmentation associated with dopamine agonist and levodopa usage in a community sample.
        Sleep Med. 2011; 12: 431-439
        • Eliasson A.H.
        • Lettieri C.J.
        Sequential compression devices for treatment of restless legs syndrome.
        Medicine. 2007; 86: 317-323
        • Guffey J.S.
        • et al.
        Using near infrared light to manage symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome.
        Physiother Theor Pract. 2016; 32: 34-44
        • Liu C.
        • et al.
        Mapping intrinsic functional brain changes and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation neuromodulation in idiopathic restless legs syndrome: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
        Sleep Med. 2015; 16: 785-791
        • Lin Y.-C.
        • et al.
        Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of restless legs syndrome.
        Chin Med J. 2015; 128
        • Montagna P.
        • de Bianchi L.S.
        • Zucconi M.
        • et al.
        Clonazepam and vibration in restless legs syndrome.
        Acta Neurol Scand. 1984; 69: 428-430
        • Park A.
        • Ambrogi K.
        • Hade E.M.
        Randomized pilot trial for the efficacy of the MMF07 foot massager and heat therapy for restless legs syndrome.
        PLoS One. 2020; 15: e0230951
        • Innes K.E.
        • et al.
        Effects of a 12-week yoga versus a 12-week educational film intervention on symptoms of restless legs syndrome and related outcomes: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2020; 16: 107-119
        • Innes K.E.
        • Selfe T.K.
        • Agarwal P.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of an Eight-week yoga intervention on symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS): a pilot study.
        J Altern Complement Med. 2012; 19: 527-535
        • Harrison E.G.
        • Keating J.L.
        • Morgan P.
        Novel exercises for restless legs syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial.
        J Am Board Fam Med. 2018; 31: 783-794
        • Aukerman M.M.
        • et al.
        Exercise and restless legs syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.
        J Am Board Fam Med. 2006; 19: 487-493
        • Wali S.O.
        • Abaalkhail B.
        • Alhejaili F.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of vitamin D replacement therapy in restless legs syndrome: a randomized control trial.
        Sleep Breath. 2019; 23: 595-601
        • Tutuncu M.
        • Tutuncu M.
        The effect of vitamin D on restless legs syndrome: prospective self-controlled case study.
        Sleep Breath. 2020; 24: 1101-1106
        • Dinkins E.M.
        • Stevens-Lapsley J.
        Management of symptoms of Restless Legs Syndrome with use of a traction straight leg raise: a preliminary case series.
        Man Ther. 2013; 18: 299-302
        • Mitchell U.H.
        • Hilton S.C.
        • Erik H.
        • et al.
        Decreased symptoms without augmented skin blood flow in subjects with RLS/WED after vibration treatment.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2021; 12: 947-952
        • Heide A.C.
        • et al.
        Effects of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation in idiopathic restless legs patients.
        Brain Stimulation. 2014; 7: 636-642
        • D Rozeman A.
        • Ottolini T.
        • Grootendorst D.C.
        • et al.
        Effect of sensory stimuli on restless legs syndrome: a randomized crossover study.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2021; 10: 893-896
        • Rajaram S.-S.
        • Rudzinskiy P.
        • Walters A.S.
        Enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP) for restless legs syndrome (RLS): preliminary negative results in a parallel double-blind study.
        Sleep Med. 2006; 7: 390-391
        • Hornyak M.
        • et al.
        Cognitive behavioural group therapy to improve patients’ strategies for coping with restless legs syndrome: a proof-of-concept trial.
        J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008; 79: 823-825