Advertisement

Sleep and Athletic Performance

Impacts on Physical Performance, Mental Performance, Injury Risk and Recovery, and Mental Health: An Update

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Sleep Medicine Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Lucidi F.
        • Lombardo C.
        • Russo P.M.
        • et al.
        Sleep com plaints in Italian Olympic and recreational athletes.
        J Clin Sport Psychol. 2007; 1: 121-129
        • Samuels C.
        Sleep, recovery, and performance: the new frontier in high-performance athletics.
        Neurol Clin. 2008; 26: 169-180
        • Swinbourne R.
        • Gill N.
        • Vaile J.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of poor sleep quality, sleepiness and obstructive sleep apnea risk factors in athletes.
        Eur J Sport Sci. 2016; 16: 850-858
        • Leeder J.
        • Glaister M.
        • Pizzoferro K.
        • et al.
        Sleep duration and quality in elite athletes measured using wristwatch actigraphy.
        J Sports Sci. 2012; 30: 541-545
        • Bleyer F.
        • Barbosa D.
        • Andrade R.
        • et al.
        Sleep and musculoskeletal complaints among elite athletes of Santa Catarina.
        Rev Dor Sao Paulo. 2015; 16: 102-108
        • Bonnet M.H.
        • Arand D.L.
        Hyperarousal and insomnia: state of the science.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2010; 14: 9-15
        • Tsunoda K.
        • Hotta K.
        • Mutsuzaki H.
        • et al.
        Sleep status in male wheelchair basketball players on a Japanese national team.
        J Sleep Disord Ther. 2015; 4: 1-4
        • George C.F.
        • Kab V.
        • Kab P.
        • et al.
        Sleep and breathing in professional football players.
        Sleep Med. 2003; 4: 317-325
        • Albuquerque F.N.
        • Kuniyoshi F.H.S.
        • Calvin A.D.
        • et al.
        Sleep-disordered breathing, hypertension, and obesity in retired National Football League players.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 1432-1433
        • Raikes A.C.
        • Athey A.
        • Alfonso-Miller P.
        • et al.
        Insomnia and daytime sleepiness: risk factors for sports- related concussion.
        Sleep Med. 2019; 58: 66-74
        • Reardon C.L.
        • Hainline B.
        • Aron C.M.
        • et al.
        Mental health in elite athletes: international Olympic Committee consensus statement.
        Br J Sports Med. 2019; 53: 667-699
        • Reilly T.
        • Waterhouse J.
        Sport, exercise and environ mental physiology.
        Elsevier, Edinburgh2005: 89-115
        • NCAA
        The student-athlete perspective of the college experience findings from the NCAA GOALS and SCORE studies.
        (Available at:)
        • NCAA
        Defining countable athletically related activities.
        (Available at:)
        • NCAA
        How student-athletes feel about time de- mands.
        (Available at:)
        • NCAA
        NCAA sports sponshirship and participation rates report.
        (Available at:)
        • Nixdorf I.
        • Frank R.
        • Hautzinger M.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of depressive symptoms and correlating variables among German elite athletes.
        J Clin Sport Psychol. 2013; 7: 313-326
        • Kroshus E.
        • Wagner J.
        • Wyrick D.
        • et al.
        Wake up call for collegiate athlete sleep: narrative review and consensus recommendations from the NCAA Inter- association Task Force on Sleep and Wellness.
        Br J Sports Med. 2019; 53: 731-736
        • Walsh N.P.
        • Halson S.L.
        • Sargent C.
        • et al.
        Sleep and the athlete: narrative review and 2021 expert consensus recommendations.
        Br J Sports Med. 2021; 55: 356-368
        • Janse van Rensburg D.C.
        • Jansen van Rensburg A.
        • Fowler P.M.
        • et al.
        Managing travel fatigue and jet lag in athletes: a review and consensus statement.
        Sports Med. 2021; 51: 2029-2050
        • Chase J.D.
        • Roberson P.A.
        • Saunders M.J.
        • et al.
        One night of sleep restriction following heavy exercise impairs 3-km cycling time-trial performance in the morning.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017; 42: 909-915
        • Spiegel K.
        • Leproult R.
        • Van Cauter E.
        Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function.
        Lancet. 1999; 354: 1435-1439
        • Spiegel K.
        • Leproult R.
        • L'hermite-Balériaux M.
        • et al.
        Leptin levels are dependent on sleep duration: relationships with sympathovagal balance, carbohydrate regulation, cortisol, and thyrotropin.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89: 5762-5771
        • Lastella M.
        • Roach G.D.
        • Halson S.L.
        • et al.
        Sleep/wake behaviours of elite athletes from individual and team sports.
        Eur J Sport Sci. 2015; 15: 94-100
        • Sargent C.
        • Lastella M.
        • Halson S.L.
        • et al.
        The impact of training schedules on the sleep and fatigue of elite athletes.
        Chronobiol Int. 2014; 31: 1160-1168
        • Sargent C.
        • Lastella M.
        • Romyn G.
        • et al.
        How well does a commercially available wearable device measure sleep in young athletes?.
        Chronobiol Int. 2018; 35: 754-758
        • Mah C.D.
        • Kezirian E.J.
        • Marcello B.M.
        • et al.
        Poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep of a collegiate student-athlete population.
        Sleep Health. 2018; 4: 251-257
        • Turner R.W.
        • Vissa K.
        • Hall C.
        • et al.
        Sleep problems are associated with academic performance in a national sample of collegiate athletes.
        J Am Coll Health. 2019; : 1-8
        • Fox J.L.
        • Scanlan A.T.
        • Stanton R.
        • Sargent C.
        Insufficient sleep in young athletes? Causes, consequences, and potential treatments.
        Sports Med. 2020; 50: 461-470
        • Brand S.
        • Beck J.
        • Gerber M.
        • Hatzinger M.
        • Holsboer-Trachsler E.
        Football is good for your sleep”: favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning of adolescent male intense football players compared to controls: favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning of adolescent male intense football players compared to controls.
        J Health Psychol. 2009; 14: 1144-1155
        • Whitworth-Turner C.
        • Di Michele R.
        • Muir I.
        • Gregson W.
        • Drust B.
        A comparison of sleep patterns in youth soccer players and non-athletes.
        Sci Med Footb. 2018; 2: 3-8
        • Brand S.
        • Beck J.
        • Gerber M.
        • Hatzinger M.
        • Holsboer-Trachsler E.
        Evidence of favorable sleep-EEG patterns in adolescent male vigorous football players compared to controls.
        World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010; 11: 465-475
        • Sargent C.
        • Roach G.D.
        Sleep duration is reduced in elite athletes following night-time competition.
        Chronobiol Int. 2016; 33: 667-670
        • Staunton C.
        • Gordon B.
        • Custovic E.
        • Stanger J.
        • Kingsley M.
        Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2017; 20: 786-789
        • Hoshikawa M.
        • Uchida S.
        • Hirano Y.
        A subjective assessment of the prevalence and factors associated with poor sleep quality amongst elite Japanese athletes.
        Sports Med Open. 2018; 4: 10
        • Drew M.
        • Vlahovich N.
        • Hughes D.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 summer Olympic games.
        Br J Sports Med. 2018; 52: 47-53
        • Drew M.K.
        • Vlahovich N.
        • Hughes D.
        • et al.
        A multifactorial evaluation of illness risk factors in athletes preparing for the Summer Olympic Games.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2017; 20: 745-750
        • Fischer D.
        • Lombardi D.A.
        • Marucci-Wellman H.
        • et al.
        Chronotypes in the US-influence of age and sex.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12e0178782
        • Silva A.
        • Queiroz S.S.
        • Winckler C.
        • et al.
        Sleep quality evaluation, chronotype, sleepiness and anxiety of Paralympic Brazilian athletes: Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games.
        Br J Sports Med. 2012; 46: 150-154
        • Lastella M.
        • Roach G.D.
        • Halson S.L.
        • et al.
        The chronotype of elite athletes.
        J Hum Kinet. 2016; 54: 219-225
        • Lastella M.
        • Roach G.D.
        • Hurem D.C.
        • et al.
        Does chronotype affect elite athletes' capacity to cope with the training demands of elite triathlon?.
        in: Sargent C. Darwent D. Roach G.D. Living in a 24/7 world: the impact of circadian disruption on sleep. Australasian Chronobiology Society Press, Adelaide2018: 25-28
        • Drust B.
        • Waterhouse J.
        • Atkinson G.
        • et al.
        Circadian rhythms in sports performance—an update.
        Chronobiol Int. 2005; 22: 21-44
        • Beersma D.G.
        • Gordijn M.C.
        Circadian control of the sleep-wake cycle.
        Physiol Behav. 2007; 90: 190-195
        • Reilly T.
        • Edwards B.
        Altered sleep-wake cycles and physical performance in athletes.
        Physiol Behav. 2007; 90: 274-284
        • Lack L.C.
        • Wright H.R.
        Chronobiology of sleep in hu mans.
        Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007; 64: 1205
        • Lastella M.
        • Roach G.D.
        • Halson S.L.
        • et al.
        Sleep/wake behaviour of endurance cyclists before and during competition.
        J Sports Sci. 2015; 33: 293-299
        • Lok R.
        • Zerbini G.
        • Gordijn M.C.M.
        • Beersma D.G.M.
        • Hut R.A.
        Gold, silver or bronze: circadian variation strongly affects performance in Olympic athletes.
        Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 16088
        • Gupta L.
        • Morgan K.
        • Gilchrist S.
        Does elite sport degrade sleep quality? A systematic review.
        Sports Med. 2017; 47: 1317-1333
        • Samuels C.
        • James L.
        • Lawson D.
        • et al.
        The Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire: a new tool for assessing and managing sleep in elite athletes.
        Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50: 418-422
        • Collette R.
        • Kellmann M.
        • Ferrauti A.
        • et al.
        Relation between training load and recovery-stress state in high-performance swimming.
        Front Physiol. 2018; 9: 845
        • Sargent C.
        • Halson S.
        • Roach G.D.
        Sleep or swim? Early-morning training severely restricts the amount of sleep obtained by elite swimmers.
        Eur J Sport Sci. 2014; 14: S310-S315
        • Erlacher D.
        • Ehrlenspiel F.
        • Adegbesan O.A.
        • et al.
        Sleep habits in German athletes before important competitions or games.
        J Sports Sci. 2011; 29: 859-866
        • Samuels C.H.
        Jet lag and travel fatigue: a comprehensive management plan for sport medicine physicians and high-performance support teams.
        Clin J Sport Med. 2012; 22: 268-273
        • Bender A.M.
        • Lawson D.
        • Werthner P.
        • et al.
        The clinical validation of the athlete sleep screening questionnaire: an instrument to identify athletes that need further sleep assessment.
        Sports Med Open. 2018; 4: 23
        • Khalladi K.
        • Farooq A.
        • Souissi S.
        • et al.
        Inter-relationship between sleep quality, insomnia and sleep disorders in professional soccer players.
        BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2019; 5e000498
        • Allen M.S.
        • Greenlees I.
        • Jones M.
        Personality in sport: a comprehensive review.
        Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. 2013; 6: 184-208
      1. American College Health Association. American college health association-national college health assessment, Fall 2015, spring 2016, Fall 2016, Spring 2017, Fall 2017 [data file]. Hanover (MD): American College Health Association. [producer and distributor] 2018-11-15.

        • Harvey C.J.
        • Gehrman P.
        • Espie C.A.
        Who is predisposed to insomnia: a review of familial aggregation, stress-reactivity, personality and coping style.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2014; 18: 237-247
        • Fowler P.
        • Duffield R.
        • Howle K.
        • et al.
        Effects of north bound long-haul international air travel on sleep quantity and subjective jet lag and wellness in professional Australian soccer players.
        Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015; 10: 648-654
        • Fowler P.M.
        • Duffield R.
        • Lu D.
        • et al.
        Effects of long-haul transmeridian travel on subjective jet- lag and self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in professional rugby league players.
        Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016; 11: 876-884
        • Dunican I.C.
        • Martin D.T.
        • Halson S.L.
        • et al.
        The effects of the removal of electronic devices for 48 hours on sleep in elite judo athletes.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2017; 31: 2832-2839
        • Emsellem H.A.
        • Murtagh K.E.
        Sleep apnea and sports performance.
        Clin Sports Med. 2005; 24: 329-341
        • Ahbab S.
        • Ataoğlu H.E.
        • Tuna M.
        • et al.
        Neck circumference, metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; evaluation of possible link age.
        Med Sci Monit. 2013; 19: 111
        • Mihaere K.M.
        • Harris R.
        • Gander P.H.
        • et al.
        Obstructive sleep apnea in New Zealand adults: prevalence and risk factors among Maori and non- Māori.
        Sleep. 2009; 32: 949-956
        • Rice T.B.
        • Dunn R.E.
        • Lincoln A.E.
        • et al.
        Sleep-disordered breathing in the national football league.
        Sleep. 2010; 33: 819-824
        • Dobrosielski D.A.
        • Nichols D.
        • Ford J.
        • et al.
        Estimating the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing among collegiate football players.
        Respir Care. 2016; 61: 1144-1150
        • Tuomilehto H.
        • Vuorinen V.P.
        • Penttila E.
        • et al.
        Sleep of professional athletes: underexploited potential to improve health and performance.
        J Sports Sci. 2017; 35: 704-710
        • Jackson M.L.
        • Howard M.E.
        • Barnes M.
        Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing dis orders.
        Brain Res. 2011; 190 (Elsevier): 53-68
        • Dunican I.C.
        • Walsh J.
        • Higgins C.C.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of sleep disorders and sleep problems in an elite super rugby union team.
        J Sports Sci. 2019; 37: 950-957
        • Santos I.
        • Rocha I.
        • Gozal D.
        • Meira E Cruz M.
        Obstructive sleep apnea, shift work and cardiometabolic risk.
        Sleep Med. 2020; 74: 132-140
        • Hoyos C.M.
        • Drager L.F.
        • Patel S.R.
        OSA and cardiometabolic risk: what’s the bottom line?.
        Respirology. 2017; 22: 420-429
        • Fagundes S.B.
        • Fagundes D.J.
        • Carvalho L.B.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of restless legs syndrome in runners.
        Sleep Med. 2010; 33 (One Westbrook Corporate CTR, STE 920, Westchester, IL 60154 USA: Amer Acad Sleep Medicine): A252
        • Englund C.E.
        • et al.
        Cognitive performance during successive sustained physical work episodes.
        Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput. 1985; 17: 75-85
        • Edwards B.J.
        • Waterhouse J.
        Effects of one night of partial sleep deprivation upon diurnal rhythms of accuracy and consistency in throwing darts.
        Chronobiol Int. 2009; 26: 756-768
        • Horne J.A.
        • Pettitt A.N.
        Sleep deprivation and the physiological response to exercise under steady- state conditions in untrained subjects.
        Sleep. 1984; 7: 168-179
        • Martin B.J.
        Effect of sleep deprivation on tolerance of prolonged exercise.
        Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1981; 47: 345-354
        • Mougin F.
        • Davenne D.
        • Simon-Rigaud M.L.
        • et al.
        Disturbance of sports performance after partial sleep deprivation.
        C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1989; 183: 461-466
        • Mougin F.
        • Simon-Rigaud M.L.
        • Davenne D.
        • et al.
        Effects of sleep disturbances on subsequent physical performance.
        Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1991; 63: 77-82
        • Mougin F.
        • Bourdin H.
        • Simon-Rigaud M.L.
        • et al.
        Effects of a selective sleep deprivation on subsequent anaerobic performance.
        Int J Sports Med. 1996; 17: 115-119
        • Mougin F.
        • Bourdin H.
        • Simon-Rigaud M.L.
        • et al.
        Hormonal responses to exercise after partial sleep deprivation and after a hypnotic drug-induced sleep.
        J Sports Sci. 2001; 19: 89-97
        • Souissi N.
        • Souissi M.
        • Souissi H.
        • et al.
        Effect of time of day and partial sleep deprivation on short-term, high-power output.
        Chronobiol Int. 2008; 25: 1062-1076
        • Abedelmalek S.
        • Souissi N.
        • Chtourou H.
        • et al.
        Effects of partial sleep deprivation on proinflammatory cytokines, growth hormone, and steroid hormone concentrations during repeated brief sprint interval exercise.
        Chronobiol Int. 2013; 30: 502-509
        • Souissi N.
        • Chtourou H.
        • Aloui A.
        • et al.
        Effects of time-of-day and partial sleep deprivation on short-term maximal performances of judo competitors.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2013; 27: 2473-2480
        • Abbiss C.R.
        • Laursen P.B.
        Models to explain fatigue during prolonged endurance cycling.
        Sports Med. 2005; 35: 865-898
        • Stickgold R.
        Sleep-dependent memory consolidation.
        Nature. 2005; 437: 1272
        • Walker M.P.
        • Stickgold R.
        It's practice, with sleep, that makes perfect: implications of sleep- dependent learning and plasticity for skill performance.
        Clin Sports Med. 2005; 24: 301-317
        • Taheri M.
        • Arabameri E.
        The effect of sleep deprivation on choice reaction time and anaerobic power of college student athletes.
        Asian J Sports Med. 2012; 3: 15
        • Reyner L.A.
        • Horne J.A.
        Sleep restriction and serving accuracy in performance tennis players, and effects of caffeine.
        Physiol Behav. 2013; 120: 93-96
        • Ben R.C.
        • Latiri I.
        • Dogui M.
        • et al.
        Effects of one-night sleep deprivation on selective attention and iso metric force in adolescent karate athletes.
        J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2017; 57: 752-759
        • Omisade A.
        • Buxton O.M.
        • Rusak B.
        Impact of acute sleep restriction on cortisol and leptin levels in young women.
        Physiol Behav. 2010; 99: 651-656
        • Oliver S.J.
        • Costa R.J.
        • Laing S.J.
        • et al.
        One night of sleep deprivation decreases treadmill endurance performance.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009; 107: 155-161
        • Skein M.
        • Duffield R.
        • Edge J.
        • et al.
        Intermittent- sprint performance and muscle glycogen after 30 h of sleep deprivation.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011; 43: 1301-1311
        • Katirji B.
        Clinical neurophysiology: clinical electro- myography.
        Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia2012
        • Costili D.L.
        • Flynn M.G.
        • Kirwan J.P.
        • et al.
        Effects of repeated days of intensified training on muscle glycogen and swimming performance.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988; 20: 249-254
        • Le Meur Y.
        • Duffield R.
        • Skein M.
        Sleep.
        in: Hausswirth C. Mujika I. Recovery for performance in sport. Human Kinetics, Champaign (IL)2012: 99-107
        • Guezennec C.Y.
        • Satabin P.
        • Legrand H.
        • et al.
        Physical performance and metabolic changes induced by combined prolonged exercise and different energy intakes in humans.
        Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994; 68: 525-530
        • Hausswirth C.
        • Louis J.
        • Aubry A.
        • et al.
        Evidence of disturbed sleep and increased illness in over reached endurance athletes.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014; 46: 1036-1045
        • Jung C.M.
        • Melanson E.L.
        • Frydendall E.J.
        • et al.
        Energy expenditure during sleep, sleep deprivation and sleep following sleep deprivation in adult hu- mans.
        J Physiol. 2011; 589: 235-244
        • Markwald R.R.
        • Melanson E.L.
        • Smith M.R.
        • et al.
        Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110: 5695-5700
        • Waterhouse J.
        • Atkinson G.
        • Edwards B.
        • et al.
        The role of a short post-lunch nap in improving cognitive, motor, and sprint performance in participants with partial sleep deprivation.
        J Sports Sci. 2007; 25: 1557-1566
        • Zhong X.
        • Hilton H.J.
        • Gates G.J.
        • et al.
        Increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic cardiovascular modulation in normal humans with acute sleep deprivation.
        J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005; 98: 2024-2032
        • Achten J.
        • Jeukendrup A.E.
        Heart rate monitoring.
        Sports Med. 2003; 33: 517-538
        • Hynynen E.S.A.
        • Uusitalo A.
        • Konttinen N.
        • et al.
        Heart rate variability during night sleep and after awakening in overtrained athletes.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38: 313
        • Azboy O.
        • Kaygisiz Z.
        Effects of sleep deprivation on cardiorespiratory functions of the runners and volleyball players during rest and exercise.
        Acta Physiol Hung. 2009; 96: 29-36
        • Kirschen G.W.
        • Jones J.J.
        • Hale L.
        The impact of sleep duration on performance among competitive athletes: a systematic literature review.
        Clin J Sport Med. 2020; 30: 503-512
        • Cook C.J.
        • Crewther B.T.
        • Kilduff L.P.
        • Drawer S.
        • Gaviglio C.M.
        Skill execution and sleep deprivation: effects of acute caffeine or creatine supplementation - a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
        J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2011; 8: 2
        • Schwartz J.
        • Simon Jr., R.D.
        Sleep extension improves serving accuracy: a study with college varsity tennis players.
        Physiol Behav. 2015; 151: 541-544
        • Harmon K.G.
        • Drezner J.A.
        • Gammons M.
        • et al.
        American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement: concussion in sport.
        Br J Sports Med. 2013; 47: 15-26
        • Depadilla L.
        • Miller G.F.
        • Jones S.E.
        • et al.
        Self-re- ported concussions from playing a sport or being physically active among high school students— United States, 2017.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018; 67: 682
        • Rivara F.P.
        • Schiff M.A.
        • Chrisman S.P.
        • et al.
        The effect of coach education on reporting of concussions among high school athletes after passage of a concussion law.
        Am J Sports Med. 2014; 42: 1197-1203
        • Mathias J.L.
        • Alvaro P.K.
        Prevalence of sleep disturbances, disorders, and problems following traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis.
        Sleep Med. 2012; 13: 898-905
        • Verma A.
        • Anand V.
        • Verma N.P.
        Sleep disorders in chronic traumatic brain injury.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2007; 3: 357-362
        • Weber M.
        • Webb C.A.
        • Killgore W.D.S.
        A brief and selective review of treatment approaches for sleep disturbance following traumatic brain injury.
        J Sleep Disord Ther. 2013; 2: 110
        • McCrory P.
        • Meeuwisse W.H.
        • Aubry M.
        • et al.
        Consensus statement on concussion in sport— the 4th international conference on concussion in sport held in Zurich, November 2012.
        PMR. 2013; 5: 255-279
        • McCrory P.
        • Meeuwisse W.
        • Dvorak J.
        • et al.
        Consensus statement on concussion in sport— the 5th international conference on concussion in sport held in Berlin, October 2016.
        Br J Sports Med. 2017; 51: 838-847
        • McClure D.J.
        • Zuckerman S.L.
        • Kutscher S.J.
        • et al.
        Baseline neurocognitive testing in sports-related concussions: the importance of a prior night's sleep.
        Am J Sports Med. 2014; 42: 472-478
        • Brown D.A.
        • Elsass J.A.
        • Miller A.J.
        • et al.
        Differences in symptom reporting between males and females at baseline and after a sports-related concussion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Sports Med. 2015; 45: 1027-1040
        • Graham R.
        • Rivara F.P.
        • Ford M.A.
        • et al.
        Sports-related concussion in youth: improving the science, changing the culture.
        The National Acadamies Press, Washington, DC2014
        • McCrory P.
        • Meeuwisse W.H.
        • Echemendia R.J.
        • et al.
        What is the lowest threshold to make a diagnosis of concussion?.
        Br J Sports Med. 2013; 47: 268-271
        • Eisenberg M.A.
        • Meehan W.P.
        • Mannix R.
        Duration and course of post-concussive symptoms.
        Pediatrics. 2014; 133: 999-1006
        • Lau B.C.
        • Collins M.W.
        • Lovell M.R.
        Cutoff scores in neurocognitive testing and symptom clusters that predict protracted recovery from concussions in high school athletes.
        Neurosurgery. 2011; 70: 371-379
        • Gosselin N.
        • Lassonde M.
        • Petit D.
        • et al.
        Sleep following sport-related concussions.
        Sleep Med. 2009; 10: 35-46
        • Lau B.C.
        • Collins M.W.
        • Lovell M.R.
        Sensitivity and specificity of subacute computerized neurocognitive testing and symptom evaluation in predicting outcomes after sports-related concussion.
        Am J Sports Med. 2011; 39: 1209-1216
        • Sufrinko A.M.
        • Howie E.K.
        • Elbin R.J.
        • et al.
        A preliminary investigation of accelerometer- derived sleep and physical activity following sport-related concussion.
        J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2018; 33: E64-E74
        • Kostyun R.O.
        • Milewski M.D.
        • Hafeez I.
        Sleep disturbance and neurocognitive function during the recovery from a sport-related concussion in adolescents.
        Am J Sports Med. 2015; 43: 633-640
        • Jones C.
        • Griffiths P.
        • Towers P.
        • et al.
        Pre-season injury and illness associations with perceptual well- ness, neuromuscular fatigue, sleep and training load in elite rugby union.
        Australian Journal of Strength and Conditioning, 2018
        • Milewski M.D.
        • Skaggs D.L.
        • Bishop G.A.
        • et al.
        Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes.
        J Pediatr Orthop. 2014; 34: 129-133
        • Mountjoy M.
        • Sundgot-Borgen J.K.
        • Burke L.M.
        • et al.
        IOC consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S): 2018 update.
        Br J Sports Med. 2018; 52: 687-697
        • Smyth E.A.
        • Newman P.
        • Waddington G.
        • et al.
        Injury prevention strategies specific to pre-elite athletes competing in Olympic and professional sports - a systematic review.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2019; 22: 887-901
        • Pyne D.B.
        • Verhagen E.A.
        • Mountjoy M.
        Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.
        Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2014; 24: 460-469
        • ChaputJP Dutil C.
        Lack of sleep as a contributor to obesity in adolescents: impacts on eating and activity behaviors.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016; 13: 103
        • Grandner M.A.
        • Jackson N.
        • Gerstner J.R.
        • et al.
        Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample.
        Appetite. 2013; 64: 71-80
        • Grandner M.A.
        • Jackson N.
        • Gerstner J.R.
        • et al.
        Sleep symptoms associated with intake of specific dietary nutrients.
        J Sleep Res. 2014; 23: 22-34
        • Halson S.L.
        Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes.
        Sports Med. 2014; 44: 139-147
        • Ordonez F.M.
        • Oliver A.J.S.
        • Bastos P.C.
        • et al.
        Sleep improvement in athletes: use of nutritional supplements.
        Am J Sports Med. 2017; 34: 93-99
        • Baron K.G.
        • Reid K.J.
        • Van Horn L.
        • et al.
        Contribution of evening macronutrient intake to total caloric intake and body mass index.
        Appetite. 2013; 60: 246-251
        • Lin H.H.
        • Tsai P.S.
        • Fang S.C.
        • et al.
        Effect of kiwifruit consumption on sleep quality in adults with sleep problems.
        Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011; 20: 169
        • Heaney S.
        • O'Connor H.
        • Michael S.
        • et al.
        Nutrition knowledge in athletes: a systematic review.
        Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011; 21: 248-261
        • Shechter A.
        • Grandner M.A.
        • St-Onge M.P.
        The role of sleep in the control of food intake.
        Am J Lifestyle Med. 2014; 8: 371-374
        • Von Rosen P.
        • Frohm A.
        • Kottorp A.
        • et al.
        Too little sleep and an unhealthy diet could increase the risk of sustaining a new injury in adolescent elite athletes.
        Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017; 27: 1364-1371
        • Owens J.
        • Adolescent Sleep Working Group
        Insufficient sleep in adolescents and young adults: an update on causes and consequences.
        Pediatrics. 2014; 134: e921-e932
        • Li H.
        • Moreland J.J.
        • Peek-Asa C.
        • et al.
        Preseason anxiety and depressive symptoms and prospective injury risk in collegiate athletes.
        Am J Sports Med. 2017; 45: 2148-2155
        • Baglioni C.
        • Battagliese G.
        • Feige B.
        • et al.
        Insomnia as a predictor of depression: a meta-analytic evaluation of longitudinal epidemiological studies.
        J Affect Disord. 2011; 135: 10-19
        • Lee S.
        • Buxton O.M.
        • Andel R.
        • et al.
        Bidirectional associations of sleep with cognitive interference in employees' work days.
        Sleep Health. 2019; 5: 298-308
        • Killgore W.D.
        Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.
        Prog Brain Res. 2010; 185 (Elsevier): 105-129
        • Morselli L.
        • Leproult R.
        • Balbo M.
        • et al.
        Role of sleep duration in the regulation of glucose metabolism and appetite.
        Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010; 24: 687-702
        • McMahon S.B.
        • Cafferty W.B.
        • Marchand F.
        Immune and glial cell factors as pain mediators and modulators.
        Exp Neurol. 2005; 192: 444-462
        • Haack M.
        • Sanchez E.
        • Mullington J.M.
        Elevated inflammatory markers in response to prolonged sleep restriction are associated with increased pain experience in healthy volunteers.
        Sleep. 2007; 30: 1145-1152
        • Haack M.
        • Lee E.
        • Cohen D.A.
        • et al.
        Activation of the prostaglandin system in response to sleep loss in healthy humans: potential mediator of increased spontaneous pain.
        Pain. 2009; 145: 136-141
        • Sufrinko A.
        • Pearce K.
        • Elbin R.J.
        • et al.
        The effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on neurocognitive impairment and symptoms after sport-related concussion.
        Am J Sports Med. 2015; 43: 830-838
        • Basner M.
        • Dinges D.F.
        Maximizing sensitivity of the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to sleep loss.
        Sleep. 2011; 34: 581-591
        • Dinges D.F.
        • Pack F.
        • Williams K.
        • et al.
        Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4-5 hours per night.
        Sleep. 1997; 20: 267-277
        • Wlodarczyk D.
        • Jaskowski P.
        • Nowik A.
        Influence of sleep deprivation and auditory intensity on reaction time and response force.
        Percept Mot Skills. 2002; 94: 1101-1112
        • Wolanin A.
        • Hong E.
        • Marks D.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of clinically elevated depressive symptoms in college athletes and differences by gender and sport.
        Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50: 167-171
        • Jarraya S.
        • Jarraya M.
        • Chtourou H.
        • Souissi N.
        Effect of time of day and partial sleep deprivation on the reaction time and the attentional capacities of the handball goalkeeper.
        Biol Rhythm Res. 2014; 45: 183-191
        • Kamdar B.B.
        • Kaplan K.A.
        • Kezirian E.J.
        • et al.
        The impact of extended sleep on daytime alertness, vigilance, and mood.
        Sleep Med. 2004; 5: 441-448
        • Mah C.D.
        • Mah K.E.
        • Kezirian E.J.
        • et al.
        The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players.
        Sleep. 2011; 34: 943-950
        • Arnal P.J.
        • Sauvet F.
        • Leger D.
        • et al.
        Benefits of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and recovery.
        Sleep. 2015; 38: 1935-1943
        • Arnal P.J.
        • Lapole T.
        • Erblang M.
        • et al.
        Sleep extension before sleep loss: effects on performance and neuromuscular function.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016; 48: 1595-1603
        • Rupp T.L.
        • Wesensten N.J.
        • Bliese P.D.
        • et al.
        Banking sleep: realization of benefits during subsequent sleep restriction and recovery.
        Sleep. 2009; 32: 311-321
        • Marchetti R.
        • Forte R.
        • Borzacchini M.
        • et al.
        Physical and motor fitness, sport skills and executive function in adolescents: a moderated prediction model.
        Psychology. 2015; 6: 1915
        • Micai M.
        • Kavussanu M.
        • Ring C.
        Executive function is associated with antisocial behavior and aggression in athletes.
        J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2015; 37: 469-476
        • Goel N.
        • Rao H.
        • Durmer J.S.
        • et al.
        Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation.
        Semin Neurol. 2009; 29 (© Thieme Medical Publishers): 320-339
        • Wilckens K.A.
        • Erickson K.I.
        • Wheeler M.E.
        Age- related decline in controlled retrieval: the role of the PFC and sleep.
        Neural Plast. 2012; 2012: 624795
        • Diamond A.
        Executive functions.
        Annu Rev Psychol. 2013; 64: 135-168
        • Lehto J.E.
        • Juujarvi P.
        • Kooistra L.
        • et al.
        Dimensions of executive functioning: evidence from children.
        Br J Dev Psychol. 2003; 21: 59-80
        • Kiesel A.
        • Steinhauser M.
        • Wendt M.
        • et al.
        Control and interference in task switching—a review.
        Psy Chol Bull. 2010; 136: 849
        • Killgore W.D.
        • Balkin T.J.
        • Wesensten N.J.
        Impaired decision making following 49 h of sleep deprivation.
        J Sleep Res. 2006; 15: 7-13
        • Rossa K.R.
        • Smith S.S.
        • Allan A.C.
        • et al.
        The effects of sleep restriction on executive inhibitory control and affect in young adults.
        J Adolesc Health. 2014; 55: 287-292
        • Vitale K.C.
        • Owens R.
        • Hopkins S.R.
        • Malhotra A.
        Sleep hygiene for optimizing recovery in athletes: review and recommendations.
        Int J Sports Med. 2019; 40: 535-543
        • Demos K.E.
        • Hart C.N.
        • Sweet L.H.
        • et al.
        Partial sleep deprivation impacts impulsive action but not impulsive decision-making.
        Physiol Behav. 2016; 164: 214-219
        • Lastella M.
        • Onay Z.
        • Scanlan A.T.
        • Elsworthy N.
        • Pitchford N.W.
        • Vincent G.E.
        Wakeup call: Reviewing the effects of sleep on decision-making in athletes and implications for sports officials.
        Montenegrin J Sports Sci Med. 2020; 9: 65-71
        • Killgore W.D.
        • Kamimori G.H.
        • Balkin T.J.
        Caffeine protects against increased risk-taking propensity during severe sleep deprivation.
        J Sleep Res. 2011; 20: 395-403
        • Clark I.
        • Landolt H.P.
        Coffee, caffeine, and sleep: a systematic review of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2017; 31: 70-78
        • Drake C.
        • Roehrs T.
        • Shambroom J.
        • et al.
        Caffeine effects on sleep taken 0, 3, or 6 hours before going to bed.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2013; 9: 1195-1200
        • Dunican I.C.
        • Higgins C.C.
        • Jones M.J.
        • et al.
        Caffeine use in a super rugby game and its relationship to post-game sleep.
        Eur J Sport Sci. 2018; 18: 513-523
        • Huber R.
        • Ghilardi M.F.
        • Massimini M.
        • et al.
        Local sleep and learning.
        Nature. 2004; 430: 78
        • Maquet P.
        The role of sleep in learning and memory.
        Science. 2001; 294: 1048-1052
        • Stickgold R.
        • Hobson J.A.
        • Fosse R.
        • et al.
        Sleep, learning, and dreams: off-line memory reprocessing.
        Science. 2001; 294: 1052-1057
        • Gais S.
        • Lucas B.
        • Born J.
        Sleep after learning aids memory recall.
        Learn Mem. 2006; 13: 259-262
        • Karni A.
        • Meyer G.
        • Rey-Hipolito C.
        • et al.
        The acquisition of skilled motor performance: fast and slow experience-driven changes in primary motor cortex.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998; 95: 861-868
        • Carskadon M.A.
        • Dement W.C.
        Normal human sleep: an overview.
        in: Kryger M.H. Roth T. Dement W.C. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. Saunders/Elsevier, St Louis (MO)2011: 16-26
        • Albouy G.
        • King B.R.
        • Maquet P.
        • et al.
        Hippocampus and striatum: dynamics and interaction during acquisition and sleep-related motor sequence memory consolidation.
        Hippocampus. 2013; 23: 985-1004
        • Doyon J.
        • Gabitov E.
        • Vahdat S.
        • et al.
        Current issues related to motor sequence learning in humans.
        Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2018; 20: 89-97
        • Walker M.P.
        • Brakefield T.
        • Morgan A.
        • et al.
        Practice with sleep makes perfect: sleep-dependent motor skill learning.
        Neuron. 2002; 35: 205-211
        • Curcio G.
        • Ferrara M.
        • De Gennaro L.
        Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2006; 10: 323-337
        • Albouy G.
        • Vandewalle G.
        • Sterpenich V.
        • et al.
        Sleep stabilizes visuomotor adaptation memory: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
        J Sleep Res. 2013; 22: 144-154
        • Ashworth A.
        • Hill C.M.
        • Karmiloff-Smith A.
        • et al.
        Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.
        J Sleep Res. 2014; 23: 304-310
        • Walker M.P.
        • Stickgold R.
        Sleep, memory, and plasticity.
        Annu Rev Psychol. 2006; 57: 139-166
        • Huang S.
        • Deshpande A.
        • Yeo S.C.
        • et al.
        Sleep re- striction impairs vocabulary learning when adolescents cram for exams: the need for sleep study.
        Sleep. 2016; 39: 1681-1690
        • Okano K.
        • Kaczmaryk J.
        • Dave N.
        • et al.
        Sleep quality, duration, and consistency are associated with better academic performance in college students.
        NPJ Sci Learn. 2019; 4: 16
        • Oudiette D.
        • Constantinescu I.
        • Leclair-Visonneau L.
        • et al.
        Evidence for the re-enactment of a recently learned behavior during sleepwalking.
        PLoS One. 2011; 6e18056
        • Marguilho R.
        • Jesus S.N.
        • Viseu J.
        • et al.
        Sleep and creativity: a quantitative review.
        in: Milcu M. Krall H. Dan P. Prospecting interdisciplinary in health, education and social sciences. Editura Universitara, Bucharest2014: 117-126
        • Cai D.J.
        • Mednick S.A.
        • Harrison E.M.
        • et al.
        REM, not incubation, improves creativity by priming associative networks.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009; 106: 10130-10134
        • Drago V.
        • Foster P.S.
        • Heilman K.M.
        • et al.
        Cyclic alternating pattern in sleep and its relationship to creativity.
        Sleep Med. 2011; 12: 361-366
        • Sio U.N.
        • Monaghan P.
        • Ormerod T.
        Sleep on it, but only if it is difficult: effects of sleep on problem solving.
        Mem Cognit. 2013; 41: 159-166
        • Lee S.
        • Crain T.L.
        • McHale S.M.
        • et al.
        Daily antecedents and consequences of nightly sleep.
        J Sleep Res. 2017; 26: 498-509
        • Sin N.L.
        • Almeida D.M.
        • Crain T.L.
        • et al.
        Bidirectional, temporal associations of sleep with positive events, affect, and stressors in daily life across a week.
        Ann Behav Med. 2017; 51: 402-415
        • Gouttebarge V.
        • Frings-Dresen M.H.W.
        • Sluiter J.K.
        Mental and psychosocial health among current and former professional footballers.
        Occup Med. 2015; 65: 190-196
        • Gulliver A.
        • Griffiths K.M.
        • Mackinnon A.
        • et al.
        The mental health of Australian elite athletes.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2015; 18: 255-261
        • Storch E.A.
        • Storch J.B.
        • Killiany E.M.
        • et al.
        Self-re- ported psychopathology in athletes: a comparison of intercollegiate student-athletes and non-athletes.
        J Sport Behav. 2005; 28: 86-97
        • Lastella M.
        • Lovell G.P.
        • Sargent C.
        Athletes' pre-competitive sleep behaviour and its relationship with subsequent precompetitive mood and performance.
        Eur J Sport Sci. 2014; 14: S123-S130
        • Lastella M.
        • Roach G.D.
        • Halson S.L.
        • et al.
        The effects of transmeridian travel and altitude on sleep: preparation for football competition.
        J Sports Sci Med. 2014; 13: 718
        • Savis J.C.
        • Eliot J.F.
        • Gansneder B.
        • et al.
        A subjective means of assessing college athletes' sleep: a modification of the morningness/eveningness questionnaire.
        Int J Sport Psychol. 1997; 28: 157-170
        • Brassington G.S.
        Sleep problems.
        in: Mostofsky D.L. Zaichkowsky L.D. Medical and psychological aspects of sport and exercise. Morgantown (WV). Fitness Information Technology, 2002: 193-204
        • Walters P.H.
        Sleep, the athlete, and performance.
        Strength Condit J. 2002; 24: 17-24
        • Davenne D.
        Sleep of athletes-problems and possible solutions.
        Biol Rhythm Res. 2009; 40: 45-52
        • World Health Organization [Internet]
        Depression.
        World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland2021 ([cited 2021 Sept 13]. Available at:)
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
        5th edition. APA, Washington, DC2013
        • Hammond T.
        • Gialloreto C.
        • Kubas H.
        • et al.
        The prevalence of failure-based depression among elite athletes.
        Clin J Sport Med. 2013; 23: 273-277
        • Golding L.
        • Gillingham R.G.
        • Perera N.K.P.
        The prevalence of depressive symptoms in high-performance athletes: a systematic review.
        Phys Sportsmed. 2020; 48: 247-258
        • Åkesdotter C.
        • Kenttä G.
        • Eloranta S.
        • Franck J.
        The prevalence of mental health problems in elite athletes.
        J Sci Med Sport. 2020; 23: 329-335
        • Gerber M.
        • Best S.
        • Meerstetter F.
        • et al.
        Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between athlete burnout, insomnia, and polysomnographic indices in young elite athletes.
        J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2018; 40: 312-324
        • Khader W.S.
        • Tubbs A.S.
        • Haghighi A.
        • et al.
        Onset insomnia and insufficient sleep duration are associated with suicide ideation in university students and athletes.
        J Affect Disord. 2020; 274: 1161-1164
        • Adler M.
        In today's world, the well-rested lose respect.
        Morning edition. National Public Radio, Washington, DC2009
        • Schultz J.
        These famous athletes rely on sleep for peak performance, Huffington Post.
        (Available at:) (Accessed October 1, 2019)
        • Grandner M.A.
        • Alfonso-Miller P.
        • Fernandez- Mendoza J.
        • et al.
        Sleep: important considerations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
        Curr Opin Cardiol. 2016; 31: 551
      2. Grandner MA. Healthy sleep for student-athletes: a guide for athletics departments and coaches. NCAA Sport Sci Inst Newsl 4(2).

        • Driller M.W.
        • Mah C.D.
        • Halson S.L.
        Development of the athlete sleep behavior questionnaire: a tool for identifying maladaptive sleep practices in elite athletes.
        Sleep Sci. 2018; 11: 37
        • George C.F.
        • Kab V.
        Sleep-disordered breathing in the National Football League is not a trivial matter.
        Sleep. 2011; 34: 245
        • Rogers A.J.
        • Xia K.
        • Soe K.
        • et al.
        Obstructive sleep apnea among players in the National Football League: a scoping review.
        J Sleep Disord Ther. 2017; 6 ([pii:278])
        • Brown G.T.
        • Hainline B.
        • Kroshus E.
        • et al.
        Mind, body and sport: understanding and supporting student-athlete mental wellness.
        NCAA, Indianapolis2014
        • Von Rosen P.
        • Frohm A.
        • Kottorp A.
        • et al.
        Multiple factors explain injury risk in adolescent elite athletes: applying a biopsychosocial perspective.
        Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017; 27: 2059-2069
        • Meeusen R.
        • Duclos M.
        • Foster C.
        • et al.
        Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013; 45: 186-205
        • Halson S.L.
        • Jeukendrup A.E.
        Does overtraining exist?.
        Sports Med. 2004; 34: 967-981
        • Janse van Rensburg D.C.C.
        • Fowler P.
        • Racinais S.
        Practical tips to manage travel fatigue and jet lag in athletes.
        Br J Sports Med. 2021; 55: 821-822