Non–24-Hour Sleep–Wake Rhythm Disorder in Sighted and Blind Patients

  • Makoto Uchiyama
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry, Nihon University School of Medicine, Oyaguchi-Kamicho, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan
    Search for articles by this author
  • Steven W. Lockley
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Circadian Physiology Program, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.
    Affiliations
    Circadian Physiology Program, Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA

    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA

    School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Wellington Road, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia
    Search for articles by this author

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Sleep Medicine Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. International classification of sleep disorders: diagnostic and coding manual. 3rd edition. Darien (IL): America Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.

        • Sack R.L.
        • Auckley D.
        • Auger R.R.
        • et al.
        Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: part II, advanced sleep phase disorder, delayed sleep phase disorder, free-running disorder, and irregular sleep-wake rhythm. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine review.
        Sleep. 2007; 30: 1484-1501
        • Moore-Ede M.C.
        • Czeisler C.A.
        • Richardson G.S.
        Circadian time-keeping in health and disease. I. Basic properties of circadian pacemakers.
        N Engl J Med. 1983; 309: 469-476
        • Wever R.A.
        The circadian system of man.
        in: Topics in environmental physiology and medicine. Springer-Verlag, New York1979
        • Okawa M.
        • Uchiyama M.
        Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: characteristics and entrainment pathology in delayed sleep phase and non-24-h sleep-wake syndrome.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2007; 11: 485-496
        • Hayakawa T.
        • Uchiyama M.
        • Kamei Y.
        • et al.
        Clinical analyses of sighted patients with non-24-h sleep–wake syndrome: a study of 57 consecutively diagnosed cases.
        Sleep. 2005; 28: 945-952
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Arendt J.
        • Skene D.J.
        Visual impairment and circadian rhythm disorders.
        Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2007; 9: 301-314
        • Flynn-Evans E.E.
        • Tabandeh H.
        • Skene D.J.
        • et al.
        Circadian rhythm disorders and melatonin production in 127 blind women with and without light perception.
        J Biol Rhythms. 2014; 29: 215-224
        • Uchiyama M.
        • Okawa M.
        • Ozaki S.
        • et al.
        Delayed phase jumps of sleep onset in a patient with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        Sleep. 1996; 19: 637-640
        • Kokkoris C.P.
        • Weitzman E.D.
        • Pollak C.P.
        • et al.
        Long-term ambulatory temperature monitoring in a subject with a hypernychthemeral sleep-wake cycle disturbance.
        Sleep. 1978; 1: 177-190
        • Weber A.L.
        • Cary M.S.
        • Connor N.
        • et al.
        Human non-24-hour sleep-wake cycles in an everyday environment.
        Sleep. 1980; 2: 347-354
        • Kamgar-Parsi B.
        • Wehr T.A.
        • Gillin J.C.
        Successful treatment of human non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        Sleep. 1983; 6: 257-264
        • Wollman M.
        • Lavie P.
        Hypernychthemeral sleep-wake cycle: some hidden regularities.
        Sleep. 1986; 9: 324-334
        • Hoban T.M.
        • Sack R.L.
        • Lewy A.J.
        • et al.
        Entrainment of a free-running human with bright light?.
        Chronobiol Int. 1989; 6: 347-353
        • Okawa M.
        • Uchiyama M.
        • Shirakawa S.
        • et al.
        Favourable effects of combined treatment with vitamin B12 and bright light for sleep-wake rhythm disorders.
        in: Kumar V.M. Mallick H.N. Nayar U. Sleep-wakefulness. Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi (India)1993: 71-77
        • Eliott A.L.
        • Mills J.N.
        • Waterhouse J.M.
        A man with too long a day.
        J Physiol. 1970; 212: 30-31
        • Sugita Y.
        • Ishikawa H.
        • Mikami A.
        • et al.
        Successful treatment for a patient with hypernychthemeral syndrome.
        Sleep Res. 1987; 16: 642
        • Eastman C.I.
        • Anagnopoulos C.A.
        • Cartwright R.D.
        Can bright light entrain a free-runner?.
        Sleep Res. 1988; 17: 372
        • Moriya Y.
        • Yamazaki J.
        • Higuchi T.
        • et al.
        A case of non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1990; 44: 189-190
        • Sasaki T.
        • Hashimoto O.
        • Honda Y.
        A case of non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome preceded by depressive state.
        Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1990; 44: 191-192
        • Ohta T.
        • Ando K.
        • Iwata T.
        • et al.
        Treatment of persistent sleep-wake schedule disorders in adolescents with methylcobalamin (vitamin B12).
        Sleep. 1991; 14: 414-418
        • Oren D.A.
        • Wehr T.A.
        Hypernyctohemeral syndrome after chronotherapy for delayed sleep phase syndrome.
        N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 1762
        • Tagaya H.
        • Matsuno Y.
        • Atsumi Y.
        A schizophrenic with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1993; 47: 441-442
        • Emens J.S.
        • Brotman D.J.
        • Czeisler C.A.
        Evaluation of the intrinsic period of the circadian pacemaker in a patient with a non-24-hour sleep-wake schedule disorder.
        Sleep Res. 1994; 23: 256
        • Tomoda A.
        • Miike T.
        • Uezono K.
        • et al.
        A school refusal case with biological rhythm disturbance and melatonin therapy.
        Brain Dev. 1994; 16: 71-76
        • McArthur A.J.
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Sack R.L.
        Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome in a sighted man: circadian rhythm studies and efficacy of melatonin treatment.
        Sleep. 1996; 19: 544-553
        • Yamadera H.
        • Takahashi K.
        • Okawa M.
        A multicenter study of sleep-wake rhythm disorders: clinical features of sleep-wake rhythm disorders.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996; 50: 195-201
        • Nakamura K.
        • Hashimoto S.
        • Honma S.
        • et al.
        A sighted man with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome shows damped plasma melatonin rhythm.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1997; 51: 115-119
        • Shibui K.
        • Uchiyama M.
        • Iwama H.
        • et al.
        Periodic fatigue symptoms due to desynchronization in a patient with non-24-hours sleep-wake syndrome.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998; 52: 477-481
        • Hashimoto S.
        • Nakamura K.
        • Honma S.
        • et al.
        Free-running of plasma melatonin rhythm prior to full manifestation of a non-24 hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998; 52: 264-265
        • Hayakawa T.
        • Kamei Y.
        • Urata J.
        • et al.
        Trials of bright light exposure and melatonin administration in a patient with non-24 hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998; 52: 261-262
        • Akaboshi S.
        • Inoue Y.
        • Kubota N.
        • et al.
        Case of a mentally retarded child with non-24 hour sleep-wake syndrome caused by deficiency of melatonin secretion.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000; 54: 379-380
        • Watanabe T.
        • Kajimura N.
        • Kato M.
        • et al.
        Case of a non-24 hours sleep-wake syndrome patient improved by phototherapy.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000; 54: 369-370
        • Morinobu S.
        • Yamashita H.
        • Yamawaki S.
        • et al.
        Obsessive-compulsive disorder with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2002; 63: 838-840
        • Boivin D.B.
        • James F.O.
        • Santo J.B.
        • et al.
        Non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome following a car accident.
        Neurology. 2003; 60: 1841-1843
        • Dijk D.J.
        • Czeisler C.A.
        Contribution of the circadian pacemaker and the sleep homeostat to sleep propensity, sleep structure, electroencephalographic slow waves, and sleep spindle activity in humans.
        J Neurosci. 1995; 15: 3526-3538
        • Boivin D.B.
        • Caliyurt O.
        • James F.O.
        • et al.
        Association between delayed sleep phase and hypernyctohemeral syndromes: a case study.
        Sleep. 2004; 27: 417-421
        • Crowley S.J.
        • Acebo C.
        • Carskadon M.A.
        Sleep, circadian rhythms, and delayed phase in adolescence.
        Sleep Med. 2007; 8: 602-612
        • Uchiyama M.
        • Okawa M.
        • Shibui K.
        • et al.
        Altered phase relation between sleep timing and core body temperature rhythm in delayed sleep phase syndrome and non-24-h sleep–wake syndrome in humans.
        Neurosci Lett. 2000; 294: 101-104
        • Uchiyama M.
        • Shibui K.
        • Hayakawa T.
        • et al.
        Larger phase angle between sleep propensity and melatonin rhythms in sighted humans with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        Sleep. 2002; 25: 83-88
        • Wulff K.
        • Joyce E.
        • Middleton B.
        • et al.
        The suitability of actigraphy, diary data, and urinary melatonin profiles for quantitative assessment of sleep disturbances in schizophrenia: a case report.
        Chronobiol Int. 2006; 23: 485-495
        • Thorpy M.J.
        • Korman E.
        • Spielman A.J.
        • et al.
        Delayed sleep phase syndrome in adolescents.
        J Adolesc Health Care. 1988; 9: 22-27
        • Regestein Q.R.
        • Monk T.H.
        Delayed sleep phase syndrome: a review of its clinical aspects.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1995; 152: 602-608
        • Wyatt J.K.
        Delayed sleep phase syndrome: pathophysiology and treatment options.
        Sleep. 2004; 27: 1195-1203
        • Wehr T.A.
        • Wirz-Justice A.
        • Goodwin F.K.
        • et al.
        Phase advance of the circadian sleep-wake cycle as an antidepressant.
        Science. 1979; 206: 710-713
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Lefler B.J.
        • Emens J.S.
        • et al.
        The circadian basis of winter depression.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006; 103: 7414-7419
        • Boivin D.B.
        Influence of sleep-wake and circadian rhythm disturbances in psychiatric disorders.
        J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2000; 25: 446-458
        • Boivin D.B.
        • Czeisler C.A.
        • Dijk D.J.
        • et al.
        Complex interaction of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian phase modulates mood in healthy subjects.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997; 54: 145-152
        • Surridge D.M.
        • MacLean A.
        • Coulter M.E.
        • et al.
        Mood change following an acute delay of sleep.
        Psychiatry Res. 1987; 22: 149-158
        • Sack R.L.
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Blood M.L.
        • et al.
        Circadian rhythm abnormalities in totally blind people: incidence and clinical significance.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992; 75: 127-134
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Skene D.J.
        • Arendt J.
        • et al.
        Relationship between melatonin rhythms and visual loss in the blind.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82: 3763-3770
        • Skene D.J.
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Thapan K.
        • et al.
        Effects of light on human circadian rhythms.
        Reprod Nutr Dev. 1999; 39: 295-304
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Skene D.J.
        • Butler L.J.
        • et al.
        Sleep and activity rhythms are related to circadian phase in the blind.
        Sleep. 1999; 22: 616-623
        • Klerman E.B.
        • Rimmer D.W.
        • Dijk D.J.
        • et al.
        Nonphotic entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker.
        Am J Physiol. 1998; 274: R991-R996
        • Mistlberger R.E.
        • Skene D.J.
        Nonphotic entrainment in humans?.
        J Biol Rhythms. 2005; 20: 339-352
        • Czeisler C.A.
        • Shanahan T.L.
        • Klerman E.B.
        • et al.
        Suppression of melatonin secretion in some blind patients by exposure to bright light.
        N Engl J Med. 1995; 332: 6-11
        • Klerman E.B.
        • Shanahan T.L.
        • Brotman D.J.
        • et al.
        Photic resetting of the human circadian pacemaker in the absence of conscious vision.
        J Biol Rhythms. 2002; 17: 548-555
        • Zaidi F.H.
        • Hull J.T.
        • Peirson S.N.
        • et al.
        Short-wavelength light sensitivity of circadian, pupillary, and visual awareness in humans lacking an outer retina.
        Curr Biol. 2007; 17: 2122-2128
        • Gooley J.J.
        • Ho Mien I.
        • St Hilaire M.A.
        • et al.
        Melanopsin and rod-cone photoreceptors play different roles in mediating pupillary light responses during exposure to continuous light in humans.
        J Neurosci. 2012; 32: 14242-14253
        • Vandewalle G.
        • Collignon O.
        • Hull J.T.
        • et al.
        Blue light stimulates cognitive brain activity in visually blind individuals.
        J Cogn Neurosci. 2013; 25: 2072-2085
        • Leger D.
        • Guilleminault C.
        • Santos C.
        • et al.
        Sleep/wake cycles in the dark: sleep recorded by polysomnography in 26 totally blind subjects compared to controls.
        Clin Neurophysiol. 2002; 113: 1607-1614
        • Duffy J.F.
        • Cain S.W.
        • Chang A.M.
        • et al.
        Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108: 15602-15608
        • Emens J.S.
        • Laurie A.L.
        • Songer J.B.
        • et al.
        Non-24-Hour Disorder in blind individuals revisited: variability and the influence of environmental time cues.
        Sleep. 2013; 36: 1091-1100
        • Eastman C.I.
        • Molina T.A.
        • Dziepak M.E.
        • et al.
        Blacks (African Americans) have shorter free-running circadian periods than whites (Caucasian Americans).
        Chronobiol Int. 2012; 29: 1072-1077
        • Okawa M.
        • Nanami T.
        • Wada S.
        • et al.
        Four congenitally blind children with circadian sleep–wake rhythm disorder.
        Sleep. 1987; 10: 101-110
        • Wee R.
        • Van Gelder R.N.
        Sleep disturbances in young subjects with visual dysfunction.
        Ophthalmology. 2004; 111: 297-302
        • Brainard G.C.
        • Hanifin J.P.
        Photons, clocks, and consciousness.
        J Biol Rhythms. 2005; 20: 314-325
        • Peirson S.
        • Foster R.G.
        Melanopsin: another way of signaling light.
        Neuron. 2006; 49: 331-339
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Dijk D.J.
        • Kosti O.
        • et al.
        Alertness, mood and performance rhythm disturbances associated with circadian sleep disorders in the blind.
        J Sleep Res. 2008; 17: 207-216
      2. Licamele L, Dressman M, Feeney J, et al. Pleiomorphic expression of Non-24-Hour disorder in the totally blind. Abstract. 13th meeting of the Society for Research in Biological Rhythms (SRBR). Destin, FL. May 19–23, 2012.

        • Klein T.
        • Martens H.
        • Dijk D.J.
        • et al.
        Circadian sleep regulation in the absence of light perception: chronic non-24-hour circadian rhythm sleep disorder in a blind man with a regular 24-hour sleep-wake schedule.
        Sleep. 1993; 16: 333-343
        • Czeisler C.A.
        • Weitzman E.D.
        • Moore-Ede M.C.
        • et al.
        Human sleep: its duration and organization depend on its circadian phase.
        Science. 1980; 210: 1264-1267
        • Sack R.L.
        • Brandes R.W.
        • Kendall A.R.
        • et al.
        Entrainment of free-running circadian rhythms by melatonin in blind people.
        N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 1070-1077
        • Miles L.E.
        • Raynal D.M.
        • Wilson M.A.
        Blind man living in normal society has circadian rhythms of 24.9 hours.
        Science. 1977; 198: 421-423
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Skene D.J.
        • Arendt J.
        Comparison between subjective and actigraphic measurement of sleep and sleep rhythms.
        J Sleep Res. 1999; 8: 175-183
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Newsome D.A.
        Different types of melatonin circadian secretory rhythms in some blind subjects.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983; 56: 1103-1107
        • Tabandeh H.
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Buttery R.
        • et al.
        Disturbance of sleep in blindness.
        Am J Ophthamol. 1998; 126: 707-712
        • Leger D.
        • Guilleminault C.
        • Defrance R.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of sleep/wake disorders in persons with blindness.
        Clin Sci. 1999; 97: 193-199
        • Moseley M.J.
        • Fouladi M.
        • Jones H.S.
        • et al.
        Sleep disturbance and blindness.
        Lancet. 1996; 348: 1514-1515
        • Dijk D.J.
        • Lockley S.W.
        Integration of human sleep-wake regulation and circadian rhythmicity.
        J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002; 92: 852-862
        • Honma K.
        • Honma S.
        A human phase response curve for bright light pulse.
        Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1988; 42: 167-168
        • Minors D.S.
        • Waterhouse J.M.
        • Wirz-Justice A.
        A human phase–response curve to light.
        Neurosci Lett. 1991; 133: 36-40
        • Czeisler C.A.
        • Kronauer R.E.
        • Allan J.S.
        • et al.
        Bright light induction of strong (type 0) resetting of the human circadian pacemaker.
        Science. 1989; 244: 1328-1333
        • St Hilaire M.A.
        • Gooley J.J.
        • Khalsa S.B.
        • et al.
        Human phase response curve to a 1 h pulse of bright white light.
        J Physiol. 2012; 590: 3035-3045
        • Czeisler C.A.
        • Duffy J.F.
        • Shanahan T.L.
        • et al.
        Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker.
        Science. 1999; 284: 2177-2181
        • Uchiyama M.
        • Okawa M.
        • Ozaki S.
        • et al.
        Circadian characteristics of delayed sleep phase syndrome and non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome.
        in: Honma K. Honma S. Circadian clocks and entrainment. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo (Japan)1998: 115-130
        • Uchiyama M.
        • Okawa M.
        • Shibui K.
        • et al.
        Poor compensatory function for sleep loss as a pathologic factor in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome.
        Sleep. 2000; 23: 553-558
        • Kitamura S.
        • Hida A.
        • Enomoto M.
        • et al.
        Intrinsic circadian period of sighted patients with circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2013; 73: 63-69
        • Ralph M.R.
        • Meneker M.
        A mutation of the circadian system in golden hamster.
        Science. 1988; 241: 1225-1227
        • Vitaterna M.H.
        • King D.P.
        • Chang A.
        • et al.
        Mutagenesis and mapping of a mouse gene, clock, essential for circadian behavior.
        Science. 1994; 264: 719-721
        • Ebisawa T.
        Circadian rhythms in the CNS and peripheral clock disorders: human sleep disorders and clock genes.
        J Pharmacol Sci. 2007; 103: 150-154
        • Jones C.R.
        • Campbell S.S.
        • Zone S.E.
        • et al.
        Familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome: a short-period circadian rhythm variant in humans.
        Nat Med. 1999; 5: 1062-1065
        • Hida A.
        • Kitamura S.
        • Katayose Y.
        • et al.
        Screening of clock gene polymorphisms demonstrates association of a PER3 polymorphism with morningness-eveningness preference and circadian rhythm sleep disorder.
        Sci Rep. 2014; 4: 6309
        • Kripke D.F.
        • Klimecki W.T.
        • Nievergelt C.M.
        • et al.
        Circadian polymorphisms in night owls, in bipolars, and in non-24-hour sleep cycles.
        Psychiatry Investig. 2014; 11: 345-362
        • Wright Jr., K.P.
        • Drake C.L.
        • Lockley S.W.
        Diagnostic tools for circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
        in: Kushida C.A. Handbook of sleep disorders. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, New York2008: 147-173
        • Benloucif S.
        • Burgess H.J.
        • Klerman E.B.
        • et al.
        Measuring melatonin in humans.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2008; 4: 66-69
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Skene D.J.
        • James K.
        • et al.
        Melatonin administration can entrain the free-running circadian system of blind subjects.
        J Endocrinol. 2000; 164: R1-R6
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Ahmed S.
        • Jackson J.M.
        • et al.
        Melatonin shifts human circadian rhythms according to a phase-response curve.
        Chronobiol Int. 1992; 9: 380-392
        • Cajochen C.
        • Kräuchi K.
        • Wirz-Justice A.
        The acute soporific action of daytime melatonin administration: effects on the EEG during wakefulness and subjective alertness.
        J Biol Rhythms. 1997; 12: 636-643
        • Kamei Y.
        • Hayakawa T.
        • Urata J.
        • et al.
        Melatonin treatment for circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000; 54: 381-382
        • Arendt J.
        • Skene D.J.
        • Middleton B.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of melatonin treatment in jet lag, shift work, and blindness.
        J Biol Rhythms. 1997; 12: 604-617
        • Hack L.M.
        • Lockley S.W.
        • Arendt J.
        • et al.
        The effects of low-dose 0.5-mg melatonin on the free-running circadian rhythms of blind subjects.
        J Biol Rhythms. 2003; 18: 420-429
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Bauer V.K.
        • Hasler B.P.
        • et al.
        Capturing the circadian rhythms of free-running blind people with 0.5 mg melatonin.
        Brain Res. 2001; 918: 96-100
        • Roth T.
        • Nir T.
        • Zisapel N.
        Prolonged release melatonin for improving sleep in totally blind subjects: a pilot placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
        Nat Sci Sleep. 2015; 7: 13-23
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Emens J.S.
        • Sack R.L.
        • et al.
        Zeitgeber hierarchy in humans: resetting the circadian phase positions of blind people using melatonin.
        Chronobiol Int. 2003; 20: 837-852
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Emens J.S.
        • Lefler B.J.
        • et al.
        Melatonin entrains free-running blind people according to a physiological dose-response curve.
        Chronobiol Int. 2005; 22: 1093-1106
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Emens J.S.
        • Bernert R.A.
        • et al.
        Eventual entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker by melatonin is independent of the circadian phase of treatment initiation: clinical implications.
        J Biol Rhythms. 2004; 19: 68-75
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Hasler B.P.
        • Emens J.S.
        • et al.
        Pretreatment circadian period in free-running blind people may predict the phase angle of entrainment to melatonin.
        Neurosci Lett. 2001; 313: 158-160
        • Arendt J.
        Safety of melatonin in long-term use (?).
        J Biol Rhythms. 1997; 12: 673-681
        • Buscemi N.
        • Vandermeer B.
        • Hooton N.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for secondary sleep disorders and sleep disorders accompanying sleep restriction: meta-analysis.
        BMJ. 2006; 332: 385-393
        • Rajaratnam S.M.
        • Polymeropoulos M.H.
        • Fisher D.M.
        • et al.
        Melatonin agonist tasimelteon (VEC-162) for transient insomnia after sleep-time shift: two randomised controlled multicentre trials.
        Lancet. 2009; 373 ([Erratum appears in Lancet 2009;373(9671):1252]): 482-491
        • Lavedan C.
        • Forsberg M.
        • Gentile A.J.
        Tasimelteon: a selective and unique receptor binding profile.
        Neuropharmacology. 2015; 91: 142-147
      3. Lockley SW, Dressman MA, Licamele L, et al. Tasimelteon for non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder in totally blind people (SET and RESET): two multicentre, randomised, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials. Lancet, in press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60031-9.

        • Yanagihara M.
        • Nakamura M.
        • Usui A.
        • et al.
        The melatonin receptor agonist is effective for free-running type circadian rhythm sleep disorder: case report on two sighted patients.
        Tohoku J Exp Med. 2014; 234: 123-128
        • Yamadera H.
        • Takahashi K.
        • Okawa M.
        A multicenter study of sleep-wake rhythm disorders: therapeutic effects of vitamin B12, bright light therapy, chronotherapy and hypnotics.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1996; 50: 203-209
        • Lee D.
        • Shin W.C.
        Forced entrainment by using light therapy, modafinil and melatonin in a sighted patient with non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder.
        Sleep Med. 2015; 16: 305-307
        • Sack R.L.
        • Lewy A.J.
        • Hoban T.M.
        Free-running melatonin rhythms in blind people: phase shifts with melatonin and triazolam administration.
        in: Rensing L. Van der Heiden U. Mackey M.C. Temporal disorder in human oscillatory systems. Springer - Verlag, Heidelberg (Germany)1987: 219-224
        • St Hilaire M.A.
        • Lockley S.W.
        Caffeine does not entrain the circadian clock but improves daytime alertness in blind patients with non-24-hour rhythms.
        Sleep Med. 2015; 16: 800-804