Advertisement

Correlates and Treatments of Nightmares in Adults

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Sleep Medicine Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision (DSM-IV-TR).
        fourth edition. American Psychiatric Association, Washington (DC)2000
        • American Academy of Sleep Medicine
        The international classification of sleep disorders, second edition (ICSD-2): diagnostic and coding manual.
        American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Westchester (IL)2005 (p. 99)
        • Zadra A.
        • Donderi D.C.
        Affective content and intensity of nightmares and bad dreams.
        Sleep. 2003; 26: A93-A94
        • Levin R.
        • Nielsen T.A.
        Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: a review and neurocognitive model.
        Psychol Bull. 2007; 133: 482-528
        • Halliday G.
        Direct alteration of a traumatic nightmare.
        Percept Mot Skills. 1982; 54: 413-414
        • Rothbaum B.O.
        • Mellman T.A.
        Dreams and exposure therapy in PTSD.
        J Trauma Stress. 2001; 14: 481-490
        • Zadra A.
        • Donderi D.C.
        Nightmares and bad dreams: their prevalence and relationship to well-being.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 2000; 109: 273-281
        • Blagrove M.
        • Haywood S.
        Evaluating the awakening criterion in the definition of nightmares: how certain are people in judging whether a nightmare woke them up?.
        J Sleep Res. 2006; 15: 117-124
        • Zadra A.
        • Pilon M.
        • Donderi D.C.
        Variety and intensity of emotions in nightmares and bad dreams.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006; 194: 249-254
        • Wyatt J.K.
        • Bootzin R.R.
        • Anthony J.
        • et al.
        Sleep onset is associated with retrograde and anterograde amnesia.
        Sleep. 1994; 17: 502-511
        • Belicki K.
        Nightmare frequency versus nightmare distress: relations to psychopathology and cognitive style.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1992; 101: 592-597
        • Belicki K.
        • Chambers E.
        • Ogilvie R.D.
        Sleep quality and nightmares.
        Sleep Res. 1997; 26: 637
        • Blagrove M.
        • Farmer L.
        • Williams E.
        The relationship of nightmare frequency and nightmare distress to well-being.
        J Sleep Res. 2004; 13: 129-136
        • Levin R.
        • Fireman G.
        Nightmare prevalence, nightmare distress, and self-reported psychological disturbance.
        Sleep. 2002; 25: 205-212
        • Spoormaker V.I.
        • Schredl M.
        • van den Bout J.
        Nightmares: from anxiety symptom to sleep disorder.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2006; 10: 19-31
        • Mason T.B.
        • Pack A.I.
        Sleep terrors in childhood.
        J Pediatr. 2005; 147: 388-392
        • Craske M.G.
        • Tsao J.C.
        Assessment and treatment of nocturnal panic attacks.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2005; 9: 173-184
        • Ohayon M.M.
        • Guilleminault C.
        • Priest R.G.
        Night terrors, sleepwalking, and confusional arousals in the general population: their frequency and relationship to other sleep and mental disorders.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 1999; 60 (quiz 277): 268-276
        • Belicki D.
        • Belicki K.
        Nightmares in a university population.
        Sleep Res. 1982; 11: 116
        • Bixler E.O.
        • Kales A.
        • Soldatos C.R.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1979; 136: 1257-1262
        • Ohayon M.M.
        • Morselli P.L.
        • Guilleminault C.
        Prevalence of nightmares and their relationship to psychopathology and daytime functioning in insomnia subjects.
        Sleep. 1997; 20: 340-348
        • Fukuda K.
        • Ogilvie R.D.
        • Takeuchi T.
        Recognition of sleep paralysis among normal adults in Canada and in Japan.
        Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000; 54: 292-293
        • Nielsen T.
        • Stenstrom P.
        • Levin R.
        Nightmare frequency as a function of age, gender, and September 11, 2001: findings from an internet questionnaire.
        Dreaming. 2006; 16: 145-158
        • Partinen M.
        Epidemiology of sleep disorders.
        in: Kryger M.H. Roth T. Dement W.C. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 2nd edition. Saunders, Philadelphia1994: 437-452
        • Salvio M.A.
        • Wood J.M.
        • Schwartz J.
        • et al.
        Nightmare prevalence in the healthy elderly.
        Psychol Aging. 1992; 7: 324-325
        • Levin R.
        Sleep and dream characteristics of frequent nightmare subjects in a university population.
        Dreaming. 1994; 4: 127-137
        • Robert G.
        • Zadra A.
        Measuring nightmare and bad dream frequency: impact of retrospective and prospective instruments.
        J Sleep Res. 2008; 17: 132-139
        • Bradley M.M.
        • Codispoti M.
        • Sabatinelli D.
        • et al.
        Emotion and motivation II: sex differences in picture processing.
        Emotion. 2001; 1: 300-319
        • Lyubomirsky S.
        • Nolen-Hoeksema S.
        Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995; 69: 176-190
        • Stein M.B.
        • Walker J.R.
        • Hazen A.L.
        • et al.
        Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from a community survey.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1997; 154: 1114-1119
        • Wood J.M.
        • Bootzin R.R.
        The prevalence of nightmares and their independence from anxiety.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1990; 99: 64-68
        • Fisher C.
        • Byrne J.
        • Edwards A.
        • et al.
        A psychophysiological study of nightmares.
        J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 1970; 18: 747-782
        • Krakow B.
        • Melendrez D.
        • Johnston L.
        • et al.
        Sleep-disordered breathing, psychiatric distress, and quality of life impairment in sexual assault survivors.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 2002; 190: 442-452
        • Woodward S.H.
        • Arsenault N.J.
        • Murray C.
        • et al.
        Laboratory sleep correlates of nightmare complaint in PTSD inpatients.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2000; 48: 1081-1087
        • Krakow B.
        • Schrader R.
        • Tandberg D.
        • et al.
        Nightmare frequency in sexual assault survivors with PTSD.
        J Anxiety Disord. 2002; 16: 175-190
        • Guerrero J.
        • Crocq M.A.
        Sleep disorders in the elderly: depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
        J Psychosom Res. 1994; 38: 141-150
        • Kaup B.A.
        • Ruskin P.E.
        • Nyman G.
        Significant life events and PTSD in elderly World War II veterans.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1994; 2: 239-243
        • Foa E.B.
        • Riggs D.S.
        • Gershuny B.S.
        Arousal, numbing, and intrusion: symptom structure of PTSD following assault.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1995; 152: 116-120
        • Hartmann E.
        • Falke R.
        • Russ D.
        • et al.
        Who has nightmares? Persons with lifelong nightmares compared with vivid dreamers and non-vivid dreamers.
        Sleep Res. 1981; 10: 171
        • Hartmann E.
        The nightmare: the psychology and biology of terrifying dreams.
        Basic Books, New York1984
        • Hartmann E.
        Boundaries of dreams, boundaries of dreamers: thin and thick boundaries as a new personality measure.
        Psychiatr J Univ Ott. 1989; 14: 557-560
        • Levin R.
        Nightmares and schizotypy.
        Psychiatry. 1998; 61: 206-216
        • Nielsen T.A.
        • Zadra A.
        Nightmares and other common dream disturbances.
        in: Kryger M. Roth N. Dement W.C. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 4th edition. Elsevier, Philadelphia2005: 926-935
        • Flanagan O.
        Dreaming is not an adaptation.
        Behav Brain Sci. 2001; 23: 936-938
        • Picchioni D.
        • Goeltzenleucher B.
        • Green D.N.
        • et al.
        Nightmares as a coping mechanism for stress.
        Dreaming. 2002; 12: 155-169
        • Hublin C.
        • Kaprio J.
        • Partinen M.
        • et al.
        Nightmares: familial aggregation and association with psychiatric disorders in a nationwide twin cohort.
        Am J Med Genet. 1999; 88: 329-336
        • Krakow B.
        • Kellner R.
        • Pathak D.
        • et al.
        Imagery rehearsal treatment for chronic nightmares.
        Behav Res Ther. 1995; 33: 837-843
        • Klink M.
        • Quan S.F.
        Prevalence of reported sleep disturbances in a general adult population and their relationship to obstructive airways diseases.
        Chest. 1987; 91: 540-546
        • Krakow B.
        • Melendrez D.
        • Pedersen B.
        • et al.
        Complex insomnia: insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in a consecutive series of crime victims with nightmares and PTSD.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2001; 49: 948-953
        • Kobayashi I.
        • Sledjeski E.M.
        • Spoonster E.
        • et al.
        Effects of early nightmares on the development of sleep disturbances in motor vehicle accident victims.
        J Trauma Stress. 2008; 21: 548-555
        • Germain A.
        • Nielsen T.A.
        Sleep pathophysiology in posttraumatic stress disorder and idiopathic nightmare sufferers.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2003; 54: 1092-1098
        • Ross R.J.
        • Ball W.A.
        • Sullivan K.A.
        • et al.
        Sleep disturbance as the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1989; 146: 697-707
        • Lavie P.
        • Katz N.
        • Pillar G.
        • et al.
        Elevated awaking thresholds during sleep: characteristics of chronic war-related posttraumatic stress disorder patients.
        Biol Psychiatry. 1998; 44: 1060-1065
        • Hartmann E.
        Who develops PTSD nightmares and who doesn't?.
        in: Barrett D. Trauma and dreams. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA)1996: 101-113
        • Feldman M.J.
        • Hersen M.
        Attitudes toward death in nightmare subjects.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1967; 72: 421-425
        • Lester D.
        The fear of death of those who have nightmares.
        J Psychol. 1968; 69: 245-247
        • Haynes S.
        • Mooney D.
        Nightmares: etiological, theoretical, and behavioral treatment considerations.
        Psychol Rec. 1975; 25: 225-236
        • Cellucci A.J.
        • Lawrence P.S.
        Individual differences in self-reported sleep variable correlations among nightmare sufferers.
        J Clin Psychol. 1978; 34: 721-725
        • Dunn K.K.
        • Barrett D.
        Characteristics of nightmare subjects and their nightmares.
        Psychiatr J Univ Ott. 1988; 13: 91-93
        • Levin R.
        • Masling J.
        Relations of oral imagery to thought disorder in subjects with frequent nightmares.
        Percept Mot Skills. 1995; 80: 1115-1120
        • Mellman T.A.
        • David D.
        • Kulick-Bell R.
        • et al.
        Sleep disturbance and its relationship to psychiatric morbidity after Hurricane Andrew.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1995; 152: 1659-1663
        • Bernert R.A.
        • Joiner Jr., T.E.
        • Cukrowicz K.C.
        • et al.
        Suicidality and sleep disturbances.
        Sleep. 2005; 28: 1135-1141
        • Liu X.
        Sleep and adolescent suicidal behavior.
        Sleep. 2004; 27: 1351-1358
        • Sjöström N.
        • Waern M.
        • Hetta J.
        Nightmares and sleep disturbances in relation to suicidality in suicide attempters.
        Sleep. 2007; 30: 91-95
        • Tanskanen A.
        • Tuomilehto J.
        • Viinamaki H.
        • et al.
        Nightmares as predictors of suicide.
        Sleep. 2001; 24: 844-847
        • Kotler M.
        • Iancu I.
        • Efroni R.
        • et al.
        Anger, impulsivity, social support, and suicide risk in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 2001; 189: 162-167
        • Maher M.J.
        • Rego S.A.
        • Asnis G.M.
        Sleep disturbances in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: epidemiology, impact and approaches to management.
        CNS Drugs. 2006; 20: 567-590
        • Peskind E.R.
        • Bonner L.T.
        • Hoff D.J.
        • et al.
        Prazosin reduces trauma-related nightmares in older men with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.
        J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2003; 16: 165-171
        • Raskind M.A.
        • Dobie D.J.
        • Kanter E.D.
        • et al.
        The alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin ameliorates combat trauma nightmares in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a report of 4 cases.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2000; 61: 129-133
        • Raskind M.A.
        • Thompson C.
        • Petrie E.C.
        • et al.
        Prazosin reduces nightmares in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2002; 63: 565-568
        • Taylor F.
        • Raskind M.A.
        The alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin improves sleep and nightmares in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder.
        J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002; 22: 82-85
        • Raskind M.A.
        • Peskind E.R.
        • Hoff D.J.
        • et al.
        A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.
        Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 61: 928-934
        • Raskind M.A.
        • Peskind E.R.
        • Kanter E.D.
        • et al.
        Reduction of nightmares and other PTSD symptoms in combat veterans by prazosin: a placebo-controlled study.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160: 371-373
        • Neylan T.C.
        • Lenoci M.
        • Maglione M.L.
        • et al.
        The effect of nefazodone on subjective and objective sleep quality in posttraumatic stress disorder.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 64: 445-450
        • Gillin J.C.
        • Smith-Vaniz A.
        • Schnierow B.
        • et al.
        An open-label, 12-week clinical and sleep EEG study of nefazodone in chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2001; 62: 789-796
        • Mellman T.A.
        • David D.
        • Barza L.
        Nefazodone treatment and dream reports in chronic PTSD.
        Depress Anxiety. 1999; 9: 146-148
        • Davidson J.R.
        • Weisler R.H.
        • Malik M.L.
        • et al.
        Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with nefazodone.
        Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998; 13: 111-113
        • Clark R.D.
        • Canive J.M.
        • Calais L.A.
        • et al.
        Cyproheptadine treatment of nightmares associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.
        J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999; 19: 486-487
        • Jacobs-Rebhun S.
        • Schnurr P.P.
        • Friedman M.J.
        • et al.
        Posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep difficulty.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2000; 157: 1525-1526
        • Neylan T.C.
        • Lenoci M.
        • Samuelson K.W.
        • et al.
        No improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with guanfacine treatment.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163: 2186-2188
        • Davis L.L.
        • Ward C.
        • Rasmusson A.
        • et al.
        A placebo-controlled trial of guanfacine for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans.
        Psychopharmacol Bull. 2008; 41: 8-18
        • Mohamed S.
        • Rosenheck R.
        Pharmacotherapy for older veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans administration.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008; 16: 804-812
        • Mohamed S.
        • Rosenheck R.A.
        Pharmacotherapy of PTSD in the U.S. department of veterans affairs: diagnostic- and symptom-guided drug selection.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2008; 69: 959-965
        • Mellman T.A.
        • Clark R.E.
        • Peacock W.J.
        Prescribing patterns for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.
        Psychiatr Serv. 2003; 54: 1618-1621
        • Cates M.E.
        • Bishop M.H.
        • Davis L.L.
        • et al.
        Clonazepam for treatment of sleep disturbances associated with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
        Ann Pharmacother. 2004; 38: 1395-1399
        • Braun P.
        • Greenberg D.
        • Dasberg H.
        • et al.
        Core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder unimproved by alprazolam treatment.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 1990; 51: 236-238
        • Mahowald M.W.
        • Schenck C.H.
        REM Sleep Parasomnias.
        (Chapter 75)in: Kryger M.H. Roth T. Dement W.C. Principles and practices of sleep medicine. 4th Edition. Elsevier Sauders, Philadelphia2005: 897-916
        • Ahearn E.P.
        • Krohn A.
        • Connor K.M.
        • et al.
        Pharmacologic treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: a focus on antipsychotic use.
        Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 15: 193-201
        • David D.
        • De Faria L.
        • Mellman T.A.
        Adjunctive risperidone treatment and sleep symptoms in combat veterans with chronic PTSD.
        Depress Anxiety. 2006; 23: 489-491
        • Leyba C.M.
        • Wampler T.P.
        Risperidone in PTSD.
        Psychiatr Serv. 1998; 49: 245-246
        • Dieperink M.E.
        • Drogemuller L.
        Zolpidem for insomnia related to PTSD.
        Psychiatr Serv. 1999; 50: 421
        • Hamner M.B.
        • Brodrick P.S.
        • Labbate L.A.
        Gabapentin in PTSD: a retrospective, clinical series of adjunctive therapy.
        Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2001; 13: 141-146
        • Lewis J.D.
        Mirtazapine for PTSD nightmares.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159: 1948-1949
        • Miller W.R.
        • DiPilato M.
        Treatment of nightmares via relaxation and desensitization: a controlled evaluation.
        J Consult Clin Psychol. 1983; 51: 870-877
        • Burgess M.
        • Gill M.
        • Marks I.
        Postal self-exposure treatment of recurrent nightmares. Randomised controlled trial.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1998; 172: 257-262
        • Cellucci A.J.
        • Lawrence P.S.
        The efficacy of systematic desensitization in reducing nightmares.
        J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 1978; 9: 109-114
        • Neidhardt E.J.
        • Krakow B.
        • Kellner R.
        • et al.
        The beneficial effects of one treatment session and recording of nightmares on chronic nightmare sufferers.
        Sleep. 1992; 15: 470-473
        • Kellner R.
        • Neidhardt J.
        • Krakow B.
        • et al.
        Changes in chronic nightmares after one session of desensitization or rehearsal instructions.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1992; 149: 659-663
        • Krakow B.
        • Hollifield M.
        • Johnston L.
        • et al.
        Imagery rehearsal therapy for chronic nightmares in sexual assault survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.
        JAMA. 2001; 286: 537-545
        • Davis J.L.
        • Wright D.C.
        Randomized clinical trial for treatment of chronic nightmares in trauma-exposed adults.
        J Trauma Stress. 2007; 20: 123-133
        • Germain A.
        • Shear M.K.
        • Hall M.
        • et al.
        Effects of a brief behavioral treatment for PTSD-related sleep disturbances: a pilot study.
        Behav Res Ther. 2007; 45: 627-632
        • Kellner R.
        • Singh G.
        • Irigoyen-Rascon F.
        Rehearsal in the treatment of recurring nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorders and panic disorder: case histories.
        Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1991; 3: 67-71
        • Forbes D.
        • Phelps A.J.
        • McHugh A.F.
        • et al.
        Imagery rehearsal in the treatment of posttraumatic nightmares in Australian veterans with chronic combat-related PTSD: 12-month follow-up data.
        J Trauma Stress. 2003; 16: 509-513
        • Zadra A.L.
        • Pihl R.O.
        Lucid dreaming as a treatment for recurrent nightmares.
        Psychother Psychosom. 1997; 66: 50-55
        • Kingsbury S.J.
        Brief hypnotic treatment of repetitive nightmares.
        Am J Clin Hypn. 1993; 35: 161-169
        • Raboni M.R.
        • Tufik S.
        • Suchecki D.
        Treatment of PTSD by eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) improves sleep quality, quality of life, and perception of stress.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1071: 508-513
        • Gorton G.E.
        Life-long nightmares: an eclectic treatment approach.
        Am J Psychother. 1988; 42: 610-618
        • Reeskamp H.
        Working with dreams in a clinical setting.
        Am J Psychother. 2006; 60: 23-36