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Sleep Behavior and Sleep Regulation from Infancy through Adolescence: Normative Aspects

  • Oskar G. Jenni
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Child Development Center and Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center, University Children's Hospital Zürich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Affiliations
    Child Development Center, University Children's Hospital, Zürich Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032 Zürich, Switzerland

    Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center, University Children's Hospital, Zürich Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032 Zürich, Switzerland
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  • Mary A. Carskadon
    Affiliations
    E.P. Bradley Hospital, Chronobiology and Sleep Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 300 Duncan Drive, East Providence, RI 02906, USA
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      Knowledge of what constitutes normal sleep behavior during development is a prerequisite for understanding sleep disorders in children and adolescents. This article describes normal sleep patterns in children and adolescents, depicts sleep stages and sleep electrophysiology, and identifies changes in sleep-wake (homeostatic) and circadian regulatory processes across early human development. Two basic principles guide the consideration of normal sleep during childhood: sleep patterns exhibit large variability among children, and sleep behavior must be viewed within a biopsychosocial framework.
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