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Efficacy of Hypnotic Medications and Other Medications Used for Insomnia

  • Stephen Feren
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Sleep Medicine and Research Center, 232 South Woods Mill Road, Chesterfield, MO 63017.
    Affiliations
    Sleep Medicine and Research Center, 232 South Woods Mill Road, Chesterfield, MO 63017, USA (Affiliated with St. John's Mercy Medical Center and St. Luke's Hospital.)
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  • Anup Katyal
    Affiliations
    Sleep Medicine and Research Center, 232 South Woods Mill Road, Chesterfield, MO 63017, USA (Affiliated with St. John's Mercy Medical Center and St. Luke's Hospital.)
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  • James K. Walsh
    Affiliations
    Sleep Medicine and Research Center, 232 South Woods Mill Road, Chesterfield, MO 63017, USA (Affiliated with St. John's Mercy Medical Center and St. Luke's Hospital.)

    Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, 221 North Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63103–2097, USA
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      Insomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders in the United States and other Western countries, with prevalence estimates ranging between 10% and 15% of the adult population; up to one third of all adults report insomnia symptoms in a given year [
      • Ohayon M.
      Epidemiology of insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn.
      ]. The socioeconomic impact of this disease is tremendous. The direct cost of insomnia (the cost of treatment) has been estimated to be between 10 and 15 billion dollars per year based on reports published in the early to mid-1990s [
      • Walsh J.K.
      • Engelhardt C.L.
      The direct economic costs of insomnia in the United States for 1995.
      ,
      • Stoller M.K.
      The socio-economics of insomnia: the materials and the methods.
      ]. That estimate does not include the costs attributable to increased absenteeism and property damage caused by accidents [
      • Léger D.
      • Massuel M.A.
      • Metlaine A.
      Professional correlates of insomnia.
      ]. The human cost in terms of medical comorbidities, suffering, and reduced quality of life is not so easily quantified.
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