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Comorbid Insomnia

      Insomnia is characterized by a difficulty in sleep initiation, maintenance duration, or quality that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep, along with daytime consequences such as fatigue, sleepiness, mood disturbance, cognitive difficulties, and social or occupational impairment [
      • American Academy of Sleep Medicine
      International classification of sleep disorders. 2nd edition: diagnostic and coding manual.
      ,
      • Thorpy M.J.
      Classification of sleep disorders.
      ,
      • National Institutes of Health
      National Institutes of Health State of the Science conference statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults, June 13–15, 2005.
      ,
      • Edinger J.D.
      • Means M.K.
      Overview of insomnia: definitions, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and assessment.
      ]. The term “secondary insomnia” or “comorbid insomnia” is used when a patient experiences the features of insomnia in relation to medical and psychiatric conditions or drugs [
      • American Academy of Sleep Medicine
      International classification of sleep disorders. 2nd edition: diagnostic and coding manual.
      ,
      • Thorpy M.J.
      Classification of sleep disorders.
      ,
      • National Institutes of Health
      National Institutes of Health State of the Science conference statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults, June 13–15, 2005.
      ]. In contrast, when no specific cause is identified, the designation “primary” or “idiopathic” insomnia is used [
      • American Academy of Sleep Medicine
      International classification of sleep disorders. 2nd edition: diagnostic and coding manual.
      ,
      • Thorpy M.J.
      Classification of sleep disorders.
      ,
      • National Institutes of Health
      National Institutes of Health State of the Science conference statement on manifestations and management of chronic insomnia in adults, June 13–15, 2005.
      ]. This article reviews common comorbidities associated with insomnia.
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