Advertisement

Cognitive Mechanisms in Chronic Insomnia: Processes and Prospects

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Sleep Medicine Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Beck A.T.
        Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders.
        International Universities Press, New York1976
        • Bootzin R.R.
        • Herman C.P.
        • Nicassio P.
        The power of suggestion: another examination of misattribution and insomnia.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1976; 34: 673-679
        • Steinmark S.W.
        • Borkovec T.D.
        Active and placebo treatment effects on moderate insomnia under counterdemand and positive demand instructions.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1974; 83: 157-163
        • Bixler E.O.
        • Kales A.
        • Leo L.A.
        • et al.
        A comparison of subjective estimates and objective sleep laboratory findings in insomnia patients [abstract].
        J Sleep Res. 1973; 2: 143
        • Carskadon M.A.
        • Dement W.C.
        • Mitler M.M.
        • et al.
        Self-reports versus sleep laboratory findings in 122 drug-free subjects with complaints of chronic insomnia.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1976; 133: 1382-1388
        • Rechtschaffen A.
        • Kales A.
        A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects.
        U.S. Dept. of Health Education and Welfare, Bethesda (MD)1968
        • Borkovec T.D.
        • Lane T.W.
        • VanOot P.H.
        Phenomenology of sleep among insomniacs and good sleepers: wakefulness experience when cortically asleep.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1981; 90: 607-609
        • Lichstein K.L.
        • Rosenthal T.L.
        Insomniacs' perceptions of cognitive versus somatic determinants of sleep disturbance.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1980; 89: 105-107
        • Gross R.T.
        • Borkovec T.D.
        Effects of a cognitive intrusion manipulation on the sleep-onset latency of good sleepers.
        Behav Ther. 1982; 13: 112-116
        • Morin C.M.
        Insomnia: psychological assessment and management.
        Guilford Press, New York1993
        • Watts F.N.
        • Coyle K.
        • East M.P.
        The contribution of worry to insomnia.
        Br J Clin Psychol. 1994; 33: 211-220
        • Wicklow A.
        • Espie C.A.
        Intrusive thoughts and their relationship to actigraphic measurement of sleep: towards a cognitive model of insomnia.
        Behav Res Ther. 2000; 38: 679-693
        • Espie C.A.
        Insomnia: conceptual issues in the development, persistence, and treatment of sleep disorder in adults.
        Annu Rev Psychol. 2002; 53: 215-243
        • Harvey A.G.
        • Tang N.K.Y.
        • Browning L.
        Cognitive approaches to insomnia.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 2005; 25: 593-611
        • Harvey A.G.
        A cognitive theory of and therapy for chronic insomnia.
        J Cognit Psychother. 2005; 19 (An International Quarterly): 41-60
        • Harvey A.G.
        A cognitive model of insomnia.
        Behav Res Ther. 2002; 40: 869-894
        • Nolen-Hoeksema S.
        Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1991; 100: 569-582
        • Ansfield M.E.
        • Wegner D.M.
        • Bowser R.
        Ironic effects of sleep urgency.
        Behav Res Ther. 1996; 34: 523-531
        • Levey A.B.
        • Aldaz J.A.
        • Watts F.N.
        • et al.
        Articulatory suppression and the treatment of insomnia.
        Behav Res Ther. 1991; 29: 85-89
        • Haynes S.N.
        • Adams A.
        • Franzen M.
        The effects of presleep stress on sleep-onset insomnia.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1981; 90: 601-606
        • Carney C.E.
        • Waters W.F.
        Effects of a structured problem-solving procedure on pre-sleep cognitive arousal in college students with insomnia.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2006; 4: 13-28
        • Omvik S.
        • Pallesen S.
        • Bjorvatn B.
        • et al.
        Night-time thoughts in high and low worriers: reaction to caffeine-induced sleeplessness.
        Behav Res Ther. 2007; 45: 715-727
        • Jansson M.
        • Linton S.J.
        The development of insomnia within the first year: a focus on worry.
        Br J Health Psychol. 2006; 11: 501-511
        • Guastella A.
        • Moulds M.
        The impact of rumination on sleep quality following a stressful life event.
        Pers Individ Dif. 2007; 42: 1151-1162
        • Carney C.E.
        • Edinger J.D.
        • Meyer B.
        • et al.
        Symptom-focused rumination and sleep disturbance.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2006; 4: 228-241
        • Dalgleish T.
        • Watts F.N.
        Biases of attention and memory in disorders of anxiety and depression.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 1990; 10: 589-604
        • Williams J.
        • Mathews A.
        • MacLoed C.
        The emotional Stroop task and psychopathology.
        Psychol Bull. 1996; 120: 3-24
        • Lundh L.-G.
        • Fröding A.
        • Gyllenhammar L.
        • et al.
        Cognitive bias and memory performance in patients with persistent insomnia.
        Scand J Behav Ther. 1997; 26: 27-35
        • Taylor L.M.
        • Espie C.A.
        • White C.A.
        Attentional bias in people with acute versus persistent insomnia secondary to cancer.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2003; 1: 200-212
        • Spiegelhalder K.
        • Espie C.
        • Nissen C.
        • et al.
        Sleep-related attentional bias in patients with primary insomnia compared with sleep experts and healthy controls.
        J Sleep Res. 2008; 17: 191-196
        • Sagaspe P.
        • Sanchez-Ortuno M.
        • Charles A.
        • et al.
        Effects of sleep deprivation on color-word, emotional, and specific stroop interference and on self-reported anxiety.
        Brain Cognit. 2006; 60: 76-87
        • Rensink R.A.
        • O'Regan J.K.
        • Clark J.J.
        To see or not to see: the need for attention to perceive changes in scenes.
        Psychol Sci. 1997; 8: 368-373
        • Rensink R.A.
        Change detection.
        Annu Rev Psychol. 2002; 53: 245-277
        • Jones B.T.
        • Macphee L.M.
        • Broomfield N.M.
        • et al.
        Sleep-related attentional bias in good, moderate, and poor (primary insomnia) sleepers.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 2005; 114: 249-258
        • Marchetti L.M.
        • Biello S.M.
        • Broomfield N.M.
        • et al.
        Who is pre-occupied with sleep? A comparison of attention bias in people with psychophysiological insomnia, delayed sleep phase syndrome and good sleepers using the induced change blindness paradigm.
        J Sleep Res. 2006; 15: 212-221
        • MacLeod C.
        • Mathews A.
        • Tata P.
        Attentional bias in emotional disorders.
        J Abnorm Psychol. 1986; 95: 15-20
        • MacMahon K.M.A.
        • Broomfield N.M.
        • Espie C.A.
        Attentional bias for sleep-related stimuli in primary insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome using the dot-probe task.
        Sleep. 2006; 29: 1420-1427
        • Harvey A.G.
        • Watkins E.
        • Mansell W.
        • et al.
        Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders: a transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment.
        Oxford University Press, Oxford (UK)2004
        • Tang N.K.Y.
        • Schmidt D.E.
        • Harvey A.G.
        Sleeping with the enemy: clock monitoring in the maintenance of insomnia.
        J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2007; 48: 40-55
        • Semler C.N.
        • Harvey A.G.
        An investigation of monitoring for sleep-related threat in primary insomnia.
        Behav Res Ther. 2004; 42: 1403-1420
        • Tang N.K.
        • Harvey A.G.
        Correcting distorted perception of sleep in insomnia: a novel behavioural experiment?.
        Behav Res Ther. 2004; 42: 27-39
        • Neitzert Semler C.
        • Harvey A.G.
        An experimental investigation of daytime monitoring for sleep-related threat in primary insomnia.
        Cogn Emot. 2007; 21: 146-161
        • Voss U.
        • Kolling T.
        • Heidenreich T.
        Role of monitoring and blunting coping styles in primary insomnia.
        Psychosom Med. 2006; 68: 110-115
        • Chambers M.J.
        • Keller B.
        Alert insomniacs: are they really sleep deprived?.
        Clin Psychol Rev. 1993; 13: 649-666
        • Mercer J.D.
        • Bootzin R.R.
        • Lack L.C.
        Insomniacs' perception of wake instead of sleep.
        Sleep. 2002; 25: 564-571
        • Tang N.K.Y.
        • Harvey A.G.
        Time estimation ability and distorted perception of sleep in insomnia.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2005; 3: 134-150
        • Fichten C.S.
        • Creti L.
        • Amsel R.
        • et al.
        Time estimation in good and poor sleepers.
        J Behav Med. 2005; 28: 1-17
        • Neitzert Semler C.
        • Harvey A.G.
        Daytime functioning in primary insomnia: does attentional focus contribute to real or perceived impairment?.
        Behav Sleep Med. 2006; 4: 85-103
        • Akerstedt T.
        • Billiard M.
        • Bonnet M.
        • et al.
        Awakening from sleep.
        Sleep Med Rev. 2002; 6: 267-286
        • Morin C.M.
        • Stone J.
        • Trinkle D.
        • et al.
        Dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep among older adults with and without insomnia complaints.
        Psychol Aging. 1993; 8: 463-467
        • Espie C.A.
        • Inglis S.
        • Harvey L.
        • et al.
        Insomniacs' attributions: psychometric properties of the dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep scale and the sleep disturbance questionnaire.
        J Psychosom Res. 2000; 48: 141-148
        • Morin C.M.
        • Vallieres A.
        • Ivers H.
        Dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep (DBAS): validation of a brief version (DBAS-16).
        Sleep. 2007; 30: 1547-1554
        • Edinger J.D.
        • Wohlgemuth W.K.
        • Radtke R.A.
        • et al.
        Does cognitive-behavioral insomnia therapy alter dysfunctional beliefs about sleep?.
        Sleep. 2001; 24: 591-599
        • Morin C.M.
        • Blais F.
        • Savard J.
        Are changes in beliefs and attitudes about sleep related to sleep improvements in the treatment of insomnia?.
        Behav Res Ther. 2002; 40: 741-752
        • Jansson-Frojmark M.
        • Linton S.J.
        The role of sleep-related beliefs to improvement in early cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia.
        Cogn Behav Ther. 2008; 37: 5-13
        • Jansson M.
        • Linton S.J.
        Psychological mechanisms in the maintenance of insomnia: arousal, distress, and sleep-related beliefs.
        Behav Res Ther. 2007; 45: 511-521
        • Salkovskis P.M.
        The importance of behaviour in the maintenance of anxiety and panic: a cognitive account.
        Behav Psychother. 1991; 19: 6-19
        • Woodley J.
        • Smith S.
        Safety behaviors and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep: testing a cognitive model of the maintenance of insomnia.
        J Psychosom Res. 2006; 60: 551-557
        • Morin C.M.
        • Bootzin R.R.
        • Buysse D.J.
        • et al.
        Psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: an update of recent evidence (1998–2004).
        Sleep. 2006; 29: 1396-1406
        • Harvey A.G.
        • Sharpley A.
        • Ree M.J.
        • et al.
        An open trial of cognitive therapy for chronic insomnia.
        Behav Res Ther. 2007; 45: 2491-2501
        • Bryant F.B.
        • Veroff J.
        Savoring: a new model of positive experiences.
        Lawrence Erlbaum, London (UK)2007
      1. McMakin DL, Siegle GJ, Shirk SR. Positive emotion regulation coaching for depression. Manuscript submitted for publication.

        • Harvey A.G.
        • Payne S.
        The management of unwanted pre-sleep thoughts in insomnia: distraction with imagery versus general distraction.
        Behav Res Ther. 2002; 40: 267-277
        • Brewin C.R.
        Understanding cognitive behaviour therapy: a retrieval competition account.
        Behav Res Ther. 2006; 44: 765-784
        • Emmons R.A.
        • McCullough M.E.
        Counting blessings versus burdens: an experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003; 84: 377-389
        • Wood A.
        • Joseph S.
        • Llloyd J.
        • et al.
        Gratitude influences sleep through the mechanism of pre-sleep cognitions.
        J Psychosom Res. 2009; 66: 43-48
        • Born J.
        • Hansen K.
        • Marshall L.
        • et al.
        Timing the end of nocturnal sleep.
        Nature. 1999; 397: 29-30
        • Harvey A.G.
        • Greennall E.
        Catastrophic worry in primary insomnia.
        J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2003; 34: 11-23
        • Neitzert Semler C.
        • Harvey A.G.
        Misperception of sleep can adversely affect daytime functioning in insomnia.
        Behav Res Ther. 2005; 43: 843-856
        • Harvey A.G.
        • Stinson K.
        • Whitaker K.L.
        • et al.
        The subjective meaning of sleep quality: a comparison of individuals with and without insomnia.
        Sleep. 2008; 31: 383-393